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Alzheimers 

Alzheimers the cannot remember disease

Feb 2nd 2018

'The holy grail': Simple BLOOD TEST could detect Alzheimer's disease before symptoms appear

Results showed that the test was accurate 90 per cent of the time.

In what is being described as the ‘holy grail of Alzheimer’s research’, scientists have developed a blood test that can detect the build-up of toxic proteins linked to dementia . 

Researchers from the National Centre for Geriatrics and Gerontology in Japan developed the test, which detects amyloid-beta levels in the blood, indicative of levels in the brain.

The team hopes the test could one day be used to treat patients with dementia before symptoms occur.

In the study, the researchers tested the method on 373 people, including healthy people, those with memory loss and people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease.

While there are currently brain scans available that can detect amyloid-beta levels, these are expensive and impractical.

The researchers hope their blood test could offer a cheaper and easier alternative in the near future - although they highlight that further trials are needed.

Dr Doug Brown, Chief Policy and Research Officer at Alzheimer’s Society, said: “A blood test is much quicker and cheaper than a brain scan or spinal tap, so this could be a useful tool for researchers to identify people at risk of Alzheimer’s for further investigation.”

Professor Paul Morgan, an immunology expert from Cardiff University , described the findings as the ‘holy grail’ of Alzheimer’s research.

He said: “The availability of such markers would facilitate early diagnosis, allow early intervention and perhaps provide a means of demonstrating response to intervention.”

Jan 31st 2018

Mind diet: Medical researchers reveal new eating plan to combat cognitive decline

A new diet created by scientists may help slow cognitive decline in stroke survivors. 

Called the MIND diet (short for Mediterranean-DASH Diet Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay), the eating plan is a mix of the Mediterranean and DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diets.

Both diets have been found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, heart attack and stroke.

Key foods to eat on the MIND diet are vegetables, berries and fish, and foods to avoid are sugar and pastries.

The preliminary findings from researchers at Rush University Medical Centre were presented at the American Stroke Association's International Stroke Conference 2018 in Los Angeles and are particularly significant because stroke survivors are twice as likely to develop dementia compared to the general population.

“The foods that promote brain health, including vegetables, berries, fish and olive oil, are included in the MIND diet,” said Dr. Laurel J. Cherian, a vascular neurologist and assistant professor in Rush’s Department of Neurological Sciences. “We found that it has the potential to help slow cognitive decline in stroke survivors.”

Study co-author Martha Clare Morris, ScD, a Rush nutritional epidemiologist, and her colleagues developed the MIND diet based on information from years of research about what foods and nutrients have good and bad effects on the functioning of the brain.

The researchers found that following the diet could reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s in the elderly and even those who didn’t adhere to the diet strictly had a reduced risk of AD and cognitive decline.

There are 15 dietary components of the MIND diet - 10 “brain healthy food groups” and five unhealthy groups.

The foods in the unhealthy list are red meat, butter, cheese, pastries and sweets, and fried or fast food.

Butter is limited to less than 1.5 teaspoons a day, you should have less than five servings a week of sweet treats and pastries, and less than one portion a week of whole fat cheese and fried or fast food.

What foods should you eat?

To adhere to the MIND diet you need to make sure you eat at least three servings of whole grains a day, as well as two portions of vegetables, one of which must be a leafy green.

A glass of wine a day is also encouraged, you should snack most days on nuts, have beans roughly every other day, eat poultry and berries at least twice a week and have fish once a week.

“I was really intrigued by the results of a previous MIND study, which showed that the people who were most highly adherent to the MIND diet cognitively functioned as if they were 7.5 years younger than the least adherent group,” Cherian said.

“It made me wonder if those findings would hold true for stroke survivors, who are twice as likely to develop dementia compared to the general population.”

From 2004 to 2017, Cherian and colleagues studied 106 participants of the Rush Memory and Ageing Project who had a history of stroke for cognitive decline, including decline in one’s ability to think, reason and remember.

They assessed people in the study every year until their deaths or the study’s conclusion, for an average of 5.9 years, and monitored patients' eating habits using food journals.

Participants were put into groups based on whether they were highly adherent to the MIND diet, moderately adherent or least adherent. Other factors known to affect cognitive performance were also taken into consideration, such as age, gender, education level, participation in cognitively stimulating activities, physical activity, smoking and genetics.

The study participants whose diets scored highest on the MIND diet score had substantially slower rate of cognitive decline than those who scored lowest.

Jan 29th 2018

SEX can make you look seven years younger - but that's not the only benefit
Couple

Partner “not in the mood” again? Then it might be worth sharing the following to change their mind!

According to the latest studies, regular sex – that’s one to two lovemaking sessions per week – can provide some incredible boosts to your health and wellbeing.

1. Look younger

Dr David Weeks, clinical neuropsychologist revealed to a psychology conference that his extensive research had found older men and women with an active love life looked five to seven years younger than their actual age.

But you don’t have to be at it every night to enjoy youth-enhancing effects! In fact, during his 10-year study, Weeks found quality was as important as quantity, with the anti-ageing benefits stronger if the sex was classed as “loving”.

2. Boost your fertility

This will sound like music to most men’s ears – studies have found that the more often you make love, the better quality your sperm will be.

Semen health was found to be best when sex had last occurred less than two days before the sperm was tested and was greatly decreased after 10 days of abstinence.

ALSO READ: Why women should stop faking orgasms

If you’re trying for a baby, keep sperm fresh and in tip-top shape by having sex at least twice a week, and not only around the time of the woman’s ovulation.

Frequent sex has also been found to help balance a woman’s hormones and regulate her periods, which can further boost chances of conceiving.

3. Fight colds and flu

Having sex once or twice a week has been found to raise your body’s levels of an antibody called immunoglobulin A, or IgA, which can protect you from colds and flu. One study found people who have sex more than once a week have 30% higher levels of IgA than those who abstain.

4. Disease-proof your body

Having high levels of the natural steroid DHEA, known as “the anti-ageing hormone”, is believed to be key to keeping your body fitter for longer. During sex, DHEA is secreted throughout the body, and after an orgasm, the level in the bloodstream soars to five times its normal amount.

5. Lengthen your life

ALSO READ: Guide to dating a younger man

A study carried out found people who climaxed at least three times a week had a 50% lower chance of dying for any medical reason than those who only climaxed once a month.

6. Shift your middle-age spread and keep fit

Thirty minutes of vigorous sex burns up to 100 calories, which is the same as a small glass of wine.

And if you have moderately active sex twice a week, you’ll burn an extra 5,000 calories a year!

Varying your positions is also a great, fun way to tone different muscle groups and keep limbs lean and flexible.

7. Ease those nasty period cramps

Many women say period pain diminishes if they do the deed during a cramp attack.

One theory why is that muscle contractions that occur when you reach peak levels of excitement relieve tension in the muscles of your uterus – the ones that cause menstrual cramps – therefore easing the pain.

8. Helps lower your risk of incontinence

Good sex is a great workout for a woman’s pelvic floor muscles – the muscles that control orgasms and also stem the flow of urine, reducing leakage and incontinence.

Pregnancy and the menopause can weaken these muscles significantly, but the stronger they are, the lower your risk of developing stress incontinence and prolapse later.

And let’s face it, sex is far more enjoyable than the chore of doing pelvic floor exercises on your own!

9. Prevent a heart attack

Lots of studies have found that regular sex can ward off heart attacks, not bring them on as it was once feared.

One study at Queen’s University Belfast found that having sex three times a week could halve your risk of having a heart attack or stroke.

Another study in Israel found that women who had two orgasms a week were up to 30% less likely to have heart disease than those who did not enjoy sex or didn’t have an orgasm.

10. Increase your attractiveness to others

High sexual activity makes the body release more pheromones, chemicals that enhance your appeal to the opposite sex.

This is why the more sex you have with your partner, the stronger your desire will be to have sex with them again.

11. Smooth out your wrinkles

The hormone oestrogen is pumped out during sex, which can in turn have a plumping effect on the skin, helping to smooth out those fine lines. This is especially useful following the menopause, when a woman’s skin can become drier and more wrinkled, as oestrogen levels naturally drop.

One American study found that menopausal women who had sex every week had oestrogen levels that

 

12. Give yourself an all-over healthy glow

According to research carried out at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital, sex promotes skin renewal because it is an aerobic form of exercise.

The scientist behind this study found that vigorous sex pumps higher levels of oxygen around the body, increasing the flow of blood and nutrients to the skin, and pushes newer, fresher skin cells to the surface, making skin look healthier.

13. Improve your self-esteem

One of the most important benefits, noted in a recent survey undertaken by the University of Texas, US, was that participants who had sex regularly felt more confident about their bodies.

14. Lower your blood pressure

A Scottish study found men and women who had plenty of sex coped well with stress and had lower blood pressure than those who abstained. Researchers at Brigham Young University in the US also linked frequent intercourse to lower blood pressure.

15. Banish depression

Like any exercise that raises your heart rate, sex causes your brain to release feel-good chemicals that boost your levels of serotonin – the happy hormone – to lift your mood. Serotonin is the body’s key antidepressant chemical and one of the major reasons people smile and feel happy and relaxed after sex.

Sexually active women in long-term relationships are also less likely to feel depressed than women who go without sex, according to a study of nearly 300 women by psychologist Gordon Gallup in the American Archives Of Sexual Behavior.

16. Cure that headache (yes, really!)

“Having a headache” might be an age-old excuse not to have sex, but the scientific evidence says that, to the contrary, sex can help shift pain! This is because making love causes a surge in the “love” hormone oxytocin, plus other feel-good endorphins, which can ease pain.

Women have reported that their pain from both headaches and arthritis improved post-coitus.

17. Slash stress

Research has also shown that touching and cuddling during and after sex reduces the body’s levels of cortisol – the hormone that is secreted when you’re stressed.

18. Kick your insomnia into touch

The oxytocin released when you orgasm has another benefit – it can help you drop off, research claims.

Both men and women release this feel-good hormone just before orgasm, and as it courses through your system, it promotes relaxation and sleepiness. So there is actually a genuine excuse for him to fall asleep so quickly after sex...

19. Strengthen your bones

As regular sex can boost oestrogen levels in post-menopausal women, it can offer some protection against the bone-thinning condition osteoporosis that is triggered by a lack of oestrogen.

And men can benefit too, as testosterone levels have been found to increase during and after sex, which can provide some protection against male osteoporosis.

20. Cut your risk of prostate cancer

Researchers at Nottingham University have found that men who enjoy a regular sex life in their 50s are at lower risk of developing prostate cancer.

This is because sex clears the prostate of toxins that could otherwise linger and trigger cancerous changes.

21. Feel better all day

If you decide to go for a spot of morning passion to start your day, the boost to your mood it provides can continue right through until night-time, according to research.

The American scientist Dr Debby Herbenick found that adults who made love first thing in the morning were not only more upbeat for the rest of the day, but they also benefited from a stronger immune system than those people who simply opted for a cup of tea and some toast before heading out of the door.

In other words – why wait until tonight?

Jan 27th 2018

Eating turmeric once a day could improve memory and happiness

An ingredient that is used to give curry its bright colour could also improve your memory and mood, new research suggests.

Found in turmeric, curcumin is hailed as an anti-inflammatory with antioxidant properties, and it has also been suggested as a possible reason that senior citizens in India - where curcumin is somewhat of a staple - have lower rates of Alzheimer's disease and better cognitive performance.

Published in the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, the research conducted by the University of California Los Angeles set out to examine the effects of the ingredient on people with mild, age-related memory loss. 

“Exactly how curcumin exerts its effects is not certain, but it may be due to its ability to reduce brain inflammation, which has been linked to both Alzheimer's disease and major depression,” said Dr. Gary Small, director of geriatric psychiatry at UCLA's Longevity Center and study author.

The 40 participants were aged between 50 and 90-years-old and all presented with mild memory complaints.

Half of them were assigned 90 milligrams of curcumin twice daily for 18 months, while the rest were given a placebo.

After monitoring curcumin levels in their blood and undergoing cognitive assessments and PET scans, the study found that those who took curcumin saw significant improvement in both memory and mood.

In memory tests, the people taking curcumin improved by 28 percent over the 18 months and also showed mild improvement in their overall disposition. 

Now, the researchers plan to conduct a follow-up study with a larger number of participants.

They also hope to explore whether its effects vary according to people’s age or their genetic risk for Alzheimer’s, and it’s potential to help with mild depression.

“These results suggest that taking this relatively safe form of curcumin could provide meaningful cognitive benefits over the years,” Small concluded

Jan 1st 2018

A diabetes drug may be used to treat Alzheimer’s disease

A diabetes drug may one day be used to treat Alzheimer’s disease after “significantly” reversing memory loss in mice, scientists believe.

Employed to treat type 2 diabetes, it helped cut the volume of amyloid plaques lined to the degenerative brain disorder, University of Lancashire researchers found.

It also raised levels of a chemical which helps brain cells function.

Prof Christian Holscher, who led the team, said: “Multiple receptor drugs have shown neuro-protective effects.

"Here a triple receptor shows promise as a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s.

“These very promising outcomes demonstrate the efficacy of these novel multiple receptor drugs that originally were developed to treat type 2 diabetes but have shown consistent neuro-protective effects in several studies.

"Clinical studies with an older version of this drug type already showed very promising results in people with Alzheimer's disease or with mood disorders.

He said more tests are needed.

Dr Doug Brown, of The Alzheimer’s Society, said: "With no new treatments in nearly 15 years, we need to find new ways of tackling Alzheimer's.

"It's imperative that we explore whether drugs developed to treat other conditions can benefit people with Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia.

"This approach to research could make it much quicker to get promising new drugs to the people who need them.

"Although the benefits of these 'triple agonist' drugs have so far only been found in mice, other studies with existing diabetes drugs such as liraglutide have shown real promise for people with Alzheimer's, so further development of this work is crucial."

In the UK around 850,000 have dementia, mostly Alzheimer’s.

Type 2 diabetes is known to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's.

The tests used genetically modified mice who had been given genes linked to an inheritable form of the brain disease.

Dec 23rd 2017

Forgetting a loved one's Christmas present could be an early sign of dementia, health officials have warned. Families are being urged to look out for signs of Alzheimer’s disease when they see elderly relatives over the festive season.

Prof Alastair Burns, the NHS national clinical director for dementia,said forgetting a present, a loved one’s name or getting confused while cooking Christmas dinner could be a warning of the early signs of dementia.

Charities said their helplines receive a surge in calls in January, after families became aware that that older relatives were struggling.

“Something as simple as forgetting to put the oven on for the Christmas turkey may be a warning that a loved one is experiencing the early stages of dementia,” officials said.

Prof Burns said: “Dementia is something that happens slowly so it may slip by unnoticed in people we see regularly. That’s why the Christmas visit to wider family and friends is an opportunity to spot the early warning signs.Confusion in a new environment - such as a hotel or unfamiliar home of a relative could also signal problems they warned. So could forgetting a present for a niece or nephew, or repeatedly forgetting the names of loved ones, they said.

“The important thing is to look for changes in normal behaviour,” he said.

“While it may be tempting to put forgetfulness down to one too many Christmas brandies, it could be a sign of something more serious so I would urge everyone to take a bit of extra time to consider if someone they know may need help.”

Dec 19th 2017

There’s no proven method for preventing dementia in later life, a review of multiple studies has found.

Researchers wanted to determine whether physical activity, prescription medications, brain training or over-the-counter vitamins and supplements could help prevent dementia.

The vast majority of research showed that none of the interventions worked.

The number of people with dementia is expected to increase dramatically as the population ages, which is why researchers from the Minnesota Evidence-based Practice Centre (EPC) wanted to analyse possible interventions for the disease.

Findings from four systematic evidence reviews, published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine, concluded that nothing seemed to be able to prevent dementia in patients who did not have it at the time.

Exercise

For the first review, researchers looked at data from 16 trials comparing physical activity with inactivity.

They found insufficient evidence to be able to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of aerobic training, resistance training, or tai chi for improving cognition.

That said, they did find ‘low-strength’ evidence that combining different types of interventions at the same time - such as physical activity, diet and cognitive training - improved overall cognitive test performance.

Prescription drugs

The researchers also reviewed data from 51 trials comparing the effect of prescription medication on cognitive outcomes.

The evidence did not support the use of any of the studied pharmacologic treatments (dementia medications, antihypertensives, diabetes medications, NSAIDs or aspirin, hormones, and lipid-lowering agents) for cognitive protection.

Related: 5 Surprising Causes Of Alzheimer's Disease (provided by Prevention)

Brain-training

A review of 11 trials of adults with either normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment at the time of enrollment found insufficient evidence that brain training exercises could prevent dementia.

Vitamins and supplements

Researchers reviewed 38 trials comparing over-the-counter (OTC) supplements, including omega-3 fatty acids, soy, ginkgo biloba, B vitamins, vitamin D plus calcium, vitamin C, beta carotene and multi-ingredient supplements.

They compared these with either a placebo supplement or other interventions for preventing or delaying cognitive decline, and found insufficient evidence to suggest that any of the supplements worked.

Conclusions

The researchers said the reasons why these interventions fail is not entirely clear. It is possible that they simply do not work to improve cognition, or it could be that the studies started the interventions too late in life or didn’t use them for long enough.

They noted that while there was no evidence about whether an intervention to practice a healthy lifestyle earlier in life protects against cognitive decline or dementia, it is unlikely to worsen cognition and may have other health benefits.

Commenting on the study, James Pickett, Head of Research at Alzheimer’s Society, told HuffPost UK: “There is no sure way to prevent dementia and, as these studies show, we have not yet found a successful way to reduce cases of the condition. However, studies looking at natural lifestyle differences like exercise, diet and smoking show that these factors do play a role in determining a person’s dementia risk.

“We need much more focus on research into reducing the risk of dementia if we are to develop intervention and prevention programmes that work.”

Related: ‘Super Mario 64’ Can Help Againtst Alzheimer’s? (provided by Wochit News)

Dec 12th 2017

Hearing loss could be an early sign of dementia

New research has shown an association between

Dementia can have a devastating effect on sufferers and their families, but scientists are still trying to understand exactly why and how it develops, and as yet there is no cure.

One of the latest discoveries is that hearing loss could be an early sign of the disease, with researchers at Trinity College Dublin finding an association between age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and the development of dementia.

The study

In a review of over 20,000 participants, ARHL was linked to decline in a number of areas of cognitive functioning, including episodic memory and a slower processing speed. Previous studies have shown that hearing loss precedes the onset of dementia by five to 10 years.

As a result of the study, experts say that a hearing aid could help prevent dementia by improving verbal communication and keeping the brain healthy. David Loughrey, a PhD candidate who worked on the research, told the Daily Mail:

"Hearing loss is easily diagnosed and can be treated. Although associations were small, treatment may cumulatively benefit cognition.  

Dr Carol Routledge, director of research at Alzheimer's Research UK said there may be a link between hearing loss and dementia, but the lack of mental stimulation experienced by those who are hard of hearing may also play a role. She said:

"This small but statistically robust association between hearing loss and a decline in memory skills adds to mounting evidence of a link, but the study does not conclusively show that hearing loss is driving memory problems... Hearing loss is associated with dementia risk factors like heart disease, which could also be an underlying reason for the link observed in this study."

She added;

"Some research suggests that being socially engaged and mentally active could help to boost cognitive reserve – a kind of mental resilience that may delay the effects of a disease like Alzheimer's... As things that we hear can provide mental stimulation and a means of social interaction, a loss of hearing could influence cognitive reserve, leaving people more vulnerable to memory and thinking decline."

Nov 22nd 2017

DEMENTIA development could be aided by virus, toxins and heat on cells, according to scientists. Discovery hailed as "new chapter" in Alzheimer’s research.

Dementia - and its most common form, Alzheimer’s disease - are on the rise, with over a million sufferers predicted in the UK by 2025.

Scientists now know that the neurodegenerative disease is caused by gradual death of brain cells. 

While a cure is still to be found, it is thought clearing dementia-causing plaques and tangles from the brain could be the answer - and our exposure to viruses and toxins may have something to do with it.

A new study by Boston University in the United States has found that reducing levels of ‘stress granules’ may help fight the disease, and the discovery has been hailed as a “new chapter” in Alzheimer’s research.

These ‘stress granules’ are blobs of molecules called RNA that are caused when our cells are exposed to viruses, toxins and heat.

While stress may seem to have a more obvious effect that triggers muscles to tense, heart rate to speed up and blushing, cells can become ‘stressed’ too and this could affect long-term health.

Researchers found that lowering levels of ‘stress granules’ in mice altered the type and amount of clumping in the brain of tau - a protein that causes Alzheimer’s when it becomes defective and tangles around the nerve cells.

By reducing ‘stress granules’, they were able to increase life span and boost memory in mice.

Scientists believe the new findings could provide a better understanding of Alzheimer’s, and possibly lead to a future cure.

“This is a pretty big new chapter in the study of Alzheimer’s disease,” said Professor Benjamin Wolozin, senior study author from Boston University.

“Amyloid is still toxic. Tau is still toxic. Those are still important targets. 

“But there’s this whole other pathway that you can really go in and start drugging.”

The researchers explained that when a cell is met with stress, it stops doing all unnecessary activities so it can focus on dealing with the stress.

To do this, the cell gathers RNA - which does all the non-essential work of a cell - into ‘stress granules’ for safe-keeping, and it will then revisit them once the stress has passed.

However, sometimes they’re forgotten about and in people who have Alzheimer’s the ‘stress granules’ have been left untouched and can be found in the tau tangles of patients.

Researchers are hopeful what has been shown in mice will translate to humans.

 

Aug 25th 2017

Those who suffer from long-term gum disease are 70% more likely to develop dementia, researchers have found.

According to The Times, scientists believe that inflammation caused by years of mouth problems could eventually damage the brain.

Although researchers could not prove that gum disease is a direct cause of Alzheimer's, they did say that thorough tooth-brushing could be advised to ward off dementia if the link was confirmed by further research.

The study, conducted in Taiwan, looked at 28,000 people, comparing those who had a recent diagnosis of chronic periodontitis with those who didn't over a 10-year period.

There was a marked increase in the occurrence of Alzheimer's in those who had long term gum disease; these individuals were 70% more likely to develop the condition.

James Pickett, head of research at the Alzheimer's Society, told The Times:

"Although at first if does not seem obvious that gum disease could be linked to brain health, it is plausible that an immune reaction triggered by the gum disease could make its way to the brain and contribute to the development of dementia."

However, he told people with long term gum disease not to panic, adding that while a 70% increase "sounds like a big risk, only about one in 100 people with gum disease went on to develop dementia, showing that this figure is not necessarily a cause for alarm".

Aug 19th 2017

Restoring memory loss.

Experts say that the number of people living with Alzheimer’s disease is growing—and fast. While more than five million Americans live with this form of dementia today, that number could more than triple by the year 2050. But here’s some good news: Thanks to the most revolutionary research yet, doctors could soon restore memory loss in Alzheimer’s patients for good.

MIT researchers have successfully reversed memory loss in mice, according to a study published in the journal Cell Reports. They did so by blocking the enzyme HDAC2, which interferes with the genes associated with memory.

Memory loss in Alzheimer’s patients takes place when HCAC2 creates a blockade that shuts down the brain’s memory genes, causing forgetfulness and making memory formation more difficult. Since past research has failed to block the enzyme without toxic side effects, these results are groundbreaking.

'This is exciting because for the first time we have found a specific mechanism by which HDAC2 regulates synaptic gene expression,' lead author Li-Huei Tsai said. “If we can remove the blockade by inhibiting HDAC2 activity or reducing HDAC2 levels, then we can restore expression of all these genes necessary for learning and memory.'

Other researchers find Tsai’s research encouraging, as well. “As Alzheimer’s is now the biggest killer for women and the third for men, it is important that we think about putting as much emphasis on prevention as we do on treatment,” Dr Marilyn Glenville, one of the UK’s leading nutritionists and author of Natural Solutions for Dementia and Alzheimer’s, told The Independent. Maintaining these daily habits can keep your brain sharp and prevent Alzheimer’s disease.

Although the procedure has only been tested on mice so far, Tsai hopes that it will one day successfully restore long-term memory in humans, too. In the meantime, losing a loved one to Alzheimer’s is tough for both parties—and many don’t recognize the earliest symptoms. 

Aug 18 2017

People who can't distinguish between the smell of bubble gum and petrol could be at risk of developing dementia, according to new research.

By the time people start exhibiting the symptoms of Alzheimer's (such as memory loss), it's almost too late – the damage to your brain may have already been happening for decades. That's why so many scientists are trying to find ways to detect the disease at its earliest stage.

But now researchers at the Centre for Studies on Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease at the Douglas Mental Health Research Centre of McGill University believe your sense of small may be a useful marker for early signs of the disease.

The scientists asked 300 people with an average age of 63 who all had a parent with Alzheimer's disease to take multiple choice scratch-and-sniff tests to identify smells such as bubble gum, petrol or lemon. A third of these volunteers had regular lumbar punctures to measure for Alzheimer's related proteins in their spinal fluid.

Those who found it hardest to identify the smells were those who had more biological markers for dementia.

Marie-Elyse Lafaille-Magnan, a doctoral student at the centre said: "This is the first time anyone has been able to show clearly that the loss of the ability to identify smells is correlated with biological markers indicating the advance of the disease. For more than 30 years scientists have been exploring the connection between memory loss and the difficulty patients may have in identifying different odours."

Dr Carol Routledge, director of research at Alzheimer's Research UK cautioned that much larger research studies would be needed to determine how recognising smells is affected by brain changes in dementia and to see if a smell test could be developed for identifying those at risk of developing the condition.

She said: "While an odour detection test may one day support diagnostic approaches like brain scanning and pen and paper tests, this test is not yet able to reliably predict who will go on to experience memory and thinking decline or develop the symptoms of dementia."

March 31st 2017

New hope for Alzheimer sufferers

Makers of an Alzheimer’s drug are hoping it will become the first new treatment for the disease available to sufferers for over a decade if trials conclude successfully later this year.

The drug, called intepirdine, works by increasing the release of a chemical in the brain that plays an important role in memory function.

Its developers say unlike more experimental treatments, which have caused excitement in early stages but then failed in clinical trials, the drug works in tandem with existing medication to help people with dementia live more independently for longer.

“Studies based on theory can be successful, but several hundred of them have failed,” said Lawrence Friedhoff, chief development officer at Axovant, the company producing the drug.

“Our trial is replicating a study that already shows statistically significant benefit in humans, so it has a much higher chance of being successful.”

Alzheimer’s is the most common cause of dementia, a degenerative brain condition that affects more than 850,000 people in the UK, most of whom are over 65.

The last Alzheimer's drug to be approved was donepezil in 2002.​

While the intepirdine trial is not guaranteed to succeed, this drug is the only plausible new treatment being submitted for approval in the next few years, following a string of failures.

Among current drugs prescribed for the symptoms of the disease are medicines that prevent the breakdown in the brain of acetylcholine, which carries messages from one cell to another.

This new treatment could help slow memory loss in Alzheimer’s patients by increasing levels of acetylcholine in the brain, Dr Friedhoff told The Independent.

“Patients with Alzheimer's disease have less acetylcholine in their brains and less release of it than other people. And we know that can be part of what causes memory problems,” he said.

“The old drugs prevent the breakdown [of acetylchlone], the new drug promotes its release, and together they work better than either alone.”

Many other new Alzheimer’s drugs that have been trialled in recent years focussed on tackling the production of toxic amyloid proteins, which are associated with the formation of a nerve-cell destroying plaque in the brain.

But a number of high-profile trials, including one by pharmaceutical giant Merck that took place last year, ended in disappointment when the drugs in question were not found to be effective in a clinical setting.

“As far as I can tell, the only drug with reasonable chance of being approved in the next couple of years is ours,” said Dr Friedhoff. “The others have generally been based on this amyloid hypothesis and have either failed or are not going to read out for a couple of years from now.

“Most of the other trials have been based on the assumption that amyloid is important in causing Alzheimer's disease, as opposed to something that happens alongside it. 

“That assumption, I think, is probably wrong, which would explain why so many of these other drugs have failed," he said, adding: “Although I thought it was an interesting idea 15 years ago, I lost faith in it a long time ago as an approach to treating Alzheimer's.”

Tara Spires-Jones, interim director of Edinburgh University's Centre for Cognitive and Neural Systems, said the early data on the treatment looked “promising”.

She said if the drug were approved, while Alzheimer's patients would benefit, it would not stop or slow the progression of the disease, as amyloid-based treatments aimed to.

“It may provide more symptomatic benefit, but like the drugs that currently exist, it will not change the course of the disease. But it is great that people have another option, and maybe it will work better than the ones that are currently available,” she said.

Around 1,150 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s are taking part in the current international trial, which has been offered at clinics around the UK including one in Plymouth.

If the trial is successful when it is completed this autumn, the drug will be submitted for approval in the US, which could take place as soon as this time next year, and then in Europe.

Two different compounds that work in a similar way to intepirdine have reached the end of testing in the last two months, but have been unsuccessful.

One of them, produced by a European drug company called Lundbeck, "attached itself to the same molecule, but the structure was quite different”, said Dr Friedhoff.

Trials of this drug hit problems because of raised liver toxicity – but if intepirdine can overcome any similar stumbling blocks, the path will be left clear for its approval.

James Pickett, head of research at the Alzheimer's Society, said the failure of the other two compounds should generate an "element of caution" around Dr Friedhoff's claims, but said its success was possible.

"It's completely plausible that there are subtleties between them, and difference in the way these things get into the brain," he told The Independent.

March 9th 2017

Memory loss and cognitive decline are commonly thought to be the earliest signs of the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's, but a new study has found declines in glucose levels in the brain come even sooner — before the first symptoms appear. Even better? The same team also believes they have figured out a way to stop these levels from falling in the first place, a finding that could potentially prevent Alzheimer's.

Although doctors have long noted the association between declining glucose levels in the brain and the onset of Alzheimer’s disease, for the first time ever, a study now published online in the journal Translational Psychiatry has proved that these declining energy levels are a direct trigger for the cognitive impairments traditionally associated with the disease. According to a recent statement on the study, this may explain why diabetes, a condition in which glucose cannot enter the cells, is a known risk factor for dementia. According to the study, a protein known as p38 may be able to prevent this deprivation from occurring.

"The findings are very exciting," explained lead researcher Dr. Domenico Praticò in a statement. "There is now a lot of evidence to suggest that p38 is involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease."

For the study, the team purposely deprived the brains of mice of glucose in order to observe the result. As expected, these mice exhibited signs of decline to suggest that neural communication pathways in their brains had broken down. What’s more, the glucose-deprived mice performed significantly worse than control mice in maze memory tests. These mice also displayed high levels of phosphorylated tau and dramatically increased amounts of cell death in the brains, two other well known indications of Alzheimer's onset.

The study also identified p38 as a possible candidate for the development of a drug to prevent the onset of cognitive decline caused by low glucose levels. According to the research, this protein is naturally made in the body as a response to glucose deprivation. Future research will further investigate p38's role in memory impairments. 

Preventing Alzheimer's disease is a major goal for scientists around the world, and this year there have been several breakthroughs in this effort. For example, this July a team from Flinders University in Adelaide Australia in partnership with a research team at the Institute of Molecular Medicine, and University of California, Irvine released their efforts on creating a drug that could prevent brain protein buildup, the main hallmark of the disease. According to the research, these findings could lead to a vaccine against Alzheimer’s in as little as five years.

Along the same vein, researchers from Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine are hoping to create a pill that when taken could prevent the accumulation of toxic molecules in the brain that eventually go on to form these brain plaques.

Source: Practico D, Lauretti E, Li J, Di Meco A. Glucose deficit triggers tau pathology and synaptic dysfunction in a tauopathy mouse model. Translational Psychiatry. 2017

Sep 1st

New Alzheimers drug trial clears toxic brain proteins and slows memory lossThis is incredible.BEC CREW1 SEP 2016 

A new drug trial for Alzheimers patients has just been completed, and researchers are calling the results the most promising yet in the fight against the disease.The drug targets amyloid deposits - toxic proteins linked to the onset of Alzheimers - and after just 12 months, patients on the highest dose had no detectable signs of these deposits. Not only that, but for the 20 early-stage Alzheimers patients who took the highest dose of the drug for more than six months, there were indications that their cognitive decline and memory loss had been slowed down. "This is the best news we’ve had in my 25 years of doing Alzheimers research, and it brings hope to patients and families affected by the disease," one of the researchers, neurologist Stephen Salloway from Butler Hospital in Providence, Rhode Island, told Nature."Compared to other studies published in the past, the effect size of this drug is unprecedented," another of the team, Roger Nitsch from Zurich University, Switzerland, told The Independent.Before we go into the details, let’s be clear that this is just one trial with a small number of participants, and "cautiously optimistic" is the name of the game here. Nothing is confirmed until the results are replicated in a much longer trial with a larger and more diverse sample set, so while we can be excited about the incredible potential of this drug, we need to wait for follow-up trials.So with that in mind, here’s what happened. The team recruited 165 participants who had been diagnosed with the early stages of Alzheimers disease to test the efficacy of a drug based on an antibodycalled aducanumab.Aducanumab has been shown to naturally occur in people who age without experiencing significant cognitive decline, so the researchers decided to see what would happen if they injected high doses of the antibody into people with early-stage Alzheimers.It’s not clear how this antibody works, but the team announced at a recent conference that it appears to target amyloid deposits in the brain, but not in the bloodstream."The hypothesis suggests antibodies that attack amyloid in the bloodstream get sidetracked and never make it into the brain," Karen Weintraub explains over at Scientific American. "By focusing on brain amyloid, aducanumab seems to be able to cross into the brain to reach its target."The 165 participants were split into different groups, and some received the aducanumab drug in different doses, and one group of 40 received a placebo.Of the 103 patients who were given the drug once a month for up to 54 weeks, they all experienced a reduction in the amount of amyloid deposits in their brains. And the researchers found that the higher the dose, the more deposits were cleared from the brain.In the group of 21 patients who received the highest dose, no detectable signs of amyloid deposits remained in their brains after a year. The red represents amyloid-beta plaques. Credit: Ayres, Michael/Sevigny et al/NatureSimilar results were reported in a pre-trial mouse study, which saw mouse brains cleared of amyloid deposits after aducanumab treatment."This drug had a more profound effect in reversing amyloid-plaque burden than we have seen to date," Alzheimer’s researcher Eric Reiman from the Banner Alzheimers Institute in Phoenix, Arizona, who is not involved in the study, told Erika Check Hayden at Nature."That is a very striking and encouraging finding and a major advance."No one’s entirely sure what causes Alzheimers disease, but it’s thought to result from a buildup of two types of lesions in the brain: amyloid deposits - or 'plaques' - and neurofibrillary tangles. Amyloid deposits sit between the neurons as dense clusters of beta-amyloid molecules - a sticky type of protein that easily clumps together - and neurofibrillary tangles are caused by defective tau proteins that clump up into a thick, insoluble mass inside the neurons. This causes disruptions to the transportation of essential nutrients around the brain, which is thought to bring on the cognitive decline and memory loss associated with Alzheimers disease.Over the years, the roles of amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles in the onset of Alzheimer’s have been debated, because it’s not yet clear if one causes the other, or if one has a greater overall effect. But this new trial suggests that if you can get rid of the amyloid deposits, you have a chance at stalling the progression of the disease. The researchers report that they saw slower cognitive declines in 91 patients treated with the drug."Aducanumab also showed positive effects on clinical symptoms," Nitsch explained in a press statement. "While patients in the placebo group exhibited significant cognitive decline, cognitive ability remained distinctly more stable in patients receiving the antibody."The results are definitely exciting, but it’s time to replicate them in a larger group of patients. The team is now recruiting another 2,700 patients from 20 different countries to participate in a new 18-month trial, the results of which are expected in 2020."These results are the most detailed and promising that we’ve seen for a drug that aims to modify the underlying causes of Alzheimers disease,” James Pickett, head of research at the Alzheimers Society, who was not involved in the study,told Ian Johnston at The Independent. "No existing treatments for Alzheimers directly interfere with the disease process – and so a drug that actually slows the progress of the disease by clearing amyloid would be a significant step."

Aug 13th

A cheap blood test which can identify people who are at high risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease in just three hours, has been developed by scientists.

People carrying the APOE4 genetic mutation are up to 12 times more likely to develop dementia in later life, making them ideal candidates for early intervention to prevent the disease.

However current DNA testing is expensive and can take days for results to come back.

The new £25 test, developed by London-based biotech company Randox Laboaratories uses a biochip – a type of ‘lab on a chip’ – to quickly analyse genetic material in the blood and look for mutant genes.

Tests have shown that it is 100 per cent accurate, meaning there is no chance of a false positive, or the chip missing a high-risk patient. 

The biochip is likely to be used for research purposes in the first instance but could later become part of widespread screening for Alzheimer’s disease. The company said several major healthcare providers had already expressed interest.

I recently read a report about stroke victims responding very well to having stem cells injected into their brains.

I wonder if this would work for Alzheimers sufferers

Avoiding Alzeheimers

As we get older we have to struggle to avoid this dreaded disease, and the only way we can do that is to keep our brains as active as possible for as long as we can, we can do this by challenging your thinking, playing games even if you are not physically active you can play games on paper or by using a board game, it all helps to keep our brains working.


Neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's are extremely widespread, affecting millions of people across the planet, but treatments are limited, and there's currently no cure available. New work is showing promise in the development of a new treatment, with scientists identifying a compound that can reverse symptoms of the diseases. The method hasn't been tested on human patients just yet, but it's been found to be effective in genetically modified fruit flies.

Combating neurodegenerative disorders represents one of the biggest challenges in modern medicine. Our understanding of conditions like Alzheimer's is improving rapidly, but actually finding effective treatments, and even cures, is proving extremely difficult.

The new study is a collaborative effort between the University of Maryland and the University of Leicester in the United Kingdom. It focuses on metabolites related to an amino acid called tryptophan, which breaks down into numerous compounds when it degrades in the body, which in turn have effects on the nervous system.

Two of these compounds are polar opposites, with 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) having toxic properties and kynurenic acid (KYNA) helping to prevent nerve cell degeneration. The team believes that the amount of the two compounds present in the brain could play a big role in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease.

To test that theory, they worked with fruits flies genetically altered to model Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, giving them a chemical that inhibits an enzyme known as trytophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). The enzyme controls the relationship between 3-HK and KYNA, with its inhibition shifting metabolism towards the latter. The effect on the flies was significant, improving their movement and lengthening their lifespans.

"A key finding of our study is that we can improve 'symptoms' in fruit fly models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease by feeding them a drug-like chemical," said study co-author Carlo Breda of the University of Leicester. "Our experiments have identified TDO as a very promising new drug target."

Looking forward, the researchers hope to test the treatment on human patients to see if it does indeed represent a new means of combating neurodegenerative disorders.

New research indicates that an early symptom of Alzheimer’s disease can take the form of a commonly overlooked issue, one that can appear nearly 20 years before the disease can be officially diagnosed.

This is getting lost easily and having difficulty navigating.

The study — since published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s disease — split participants into three groups: people with preclinical Alzheimer’s disease that showed changes in their brain, people with Alzheimer’s-associated brain and spinal fluid changes, and people with early-stage Alzheimer’s.

These participants were measured against a control group of 42 healthy people.

Participants were tested on their ability to navigate a virtual maze after being given either 20 minutes to learn a preselected route, or, after they explored the maze with a joystick.

They then had to recreate their set route or find their way to landmarks within the maze.

The study found that the group with preclinical Alzheimer’s disease had little trouble remembering a set route, however they struggled to create a mental map of the maze.

These findings are consistent with other research on early stage Alzheimer’s patients.

A likely explanation for these findings is that Alzheimer’s first surfaces in the hippocampus (pictured below); an area of the brain that’s responsible for memory forming and for spatial navigation.

 

Denise Head, a senior author of the study, said in a statement: “These findings suggest that navigational tasks designed to assess a cognitive mapping strategy could represent a powerful new tool for detecting the very earliest Alzheimer’s disease-related changes in cognition.”

She added that spatial navigation tasks of this form were more sensitive at detecting preclinical Alzheimer’s than the standard episodic memory test.

“Future research should examine whether cognitive mapping deficits in individuals in preclinical Alzheimer’s are associated with an increased risk of developing symptomatic Alzheimer’s,” the research team noted.

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