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Sept 10th 2018
Monkeypox: Everything you need to know about the rare virus
A case of Monkeypox has been diagnosed in Cornwall prompting Public Health England to issue a warning.
The victim is getting treatment for the virus, which can be transmitted to humans.
It is the first time ever this infection has been diagnosed in the UK, Public Health England (PHE) said.
The World Health Organisation has the main facts, but we've broken down your main questions below.
What is monkeypox?
Monkeypox is a rare viral infection that can be transmitted to humans from animals.
It's predominantly found in remote parts of central and west Africa, near tropical rainforests.
In Africa human infections have been documented through the handling of infected monkeys, Gambian giant rats and squirrels, with rodents being the most likely reservoir of the virus. Eating inadequately cooked meat of infected animals is a possible risk factor.
The causative agent (monkeypox virus) is a double-stranded DNA virus from the family Poxviridae and the genus Orthopoxvirus.
Symptoms initially include fever, headache, muscle aches, backache, swollen lymph nodes, chills and exhaustion.
A rash may develop on the face before spreading to other parts of the body.
It may first be seen on the middle of the body, then later it spreads to the arms, legs, and head.
Rashes may start as a blister or a raised bump filled with pus and later get crusty, scab over, and fall off.
Why is it called Monkeypox?
The disease got its name because it was first found in 1958 in laboratory primates.
Blood screening of animals in Africa later found that other types of animals also had monkeypox. In 1970 the first case was reported in humans.
Is Monkeypox contagious?
The virus does not spread easily between people.
The infection can be spread when someone is in close contact with an infected person; however there is a very low risk of transmission to the general population.
The incubation period is usually from 6 to 16 days but can range from 5 to 21 days.
Can it be fatal?</h3>
Monkeypox infection is usually a mild illness and most people recover within several weeks. However, severe illness can occur in some individuals.
But in some cases it can be fatal.
How is Monkeypox diagnosed?
What is the treatment?
You may be given medicine to treat fever or pain, but there are no specific treatments or vaccines available for monkeypox infection, but outbreaks can be controlled.
A smallpox vaccination may be given to help your body fight the virus.
You may need immune globulins or antiviral medicines if your symptoms are severe.
Doctors will advise sufferers to stay at home so the virus does not spread.
Sept 6th 2018
Meat testing: A fifth of samples reveal unspecified animals' DNA
More than a fifth of meat sample tests in 2017 found DNA from animals not on the labelling, the BBC has learned.
Out of 665 results from England, Wales and Northern Ireland collected by the Food Standards Agency, 145 were partly or wholly made up of unspecified meat.
The FSA said the levels were consistent with "deliberate inclusion" - but added testing had targeted those businesses suspected of "compliance issues".
The samples came from 487 businesses, including restaurants and supermarkets.
A BBC Freedom of Information request to the FSA revealed that in total 73 of the contaminated samples came from retailers - including three supermarkets. A further 50 came from restaurants, while 22 originated from manufacturing or food processing plants.
It also showed:
§ Some samples contained DNA from as many as four different animals, while others contained no trace of the meat that appeared on the product's label
§ Meat labelled as lamb was most likely to contain traces of other animals' DNA, followed by beef and goat
§ Cow DNA was the most commonly-found contaminant, followed by pig, chicken, sheep and turkey
§ The most commonly mis-labelled product was mince meat, while sausages, kebabs and restaurant curries also featured prominently
§ Other products in the dataset include ready meals such as spaghetti Bolognese and curries, pizzas and a portion of ostrich meat, which contained only beef
An FSA spokesman said it was up to the relevant local authorities - which procured the samples before sending the results to the FSA - to lead individual investigations and take "appropriate action" such as prosecutions.
He added the results were "not representative of the wider food industry".
However, a clear picture of the wider food industry is not readily available as less than half of local authorities actually submitted meat sampling data to the United Kingdom's Food Surveillance System - part of the FSA - in 2017.
Some councils may have focused their food testing priorities "in areas other than meat substitution", the FSA said - adding that others may have carried out tests later in the financial year.
'Lack of transparency'
Experts say replacing expensive meat with a cheaper product is a common reason behind food fraud - a global problem that has existed for centuries.
This latest data comes five years after the horsemeat scandal, when processed beef products sold by a number of UK supermarket chains were found to contain significant amounts of horse DNA.
While none of the 2017 samples contained horsemeat, the lack of transparency surrounding the quality and origin of meat products in the UK has raised concerns.
Compassion in World Farming, which campaigns for better animal welfare in the meat industry, said untraceable ingredients made it hard for animal welfare to be "part of consumers' shopping decisions".
Responding to the examples of pork hidden in meat sold as lamb, kosher agency the Kashrut Division London Beth Din (KLBD) said there was "a lack of transparency" in some parts of the food industry.
The KLBD added, however, that there were "robust protocols in place to avoid mislabelling" in products labelled as kosher.
How were the tests conducted?
Local authorities gathered samples from businesses in their area before sending them to laboratories for analysis. The results were then submitted to the FSA.
The FSA explained the "majority" of samples were tested for cow, pig, sheep, goat, horse, chicken and turkey DNA because those animals represent the "overwhelming majority" of livestock reared, slaughtered and imported in the UK.
DNA from other animals could have been present in some samples, but may not have been identified as testers were not looking for it.
According to the FSA, the inclusion of DNA at a proportion of 1% or greater should be considered consistent with "deliberate inclusion".
Samples contaminated by un-named DNA at a level of less than 1% were excluded from the results on the basis they could have been caused by poor hygiene.
Aug 2nd 2018
How a Lick from a Dog Led to a Man's Leg and Arm Amputations
A 48-year-old man from Wisconsin recently contracted a rare blood infection that led to the amputation of his legs and parts of his arms, according to news reports. And the most likely source of the devastating infection was his own dog.
Greg Manteufel went to the hospital with what he thought was the flu, local news outlet Fox 6 Now reported yesterday (July 30). But within a week, the doctors had to amputate both of his legs and, later, portions of his hands and forearms. The amputations were necessary after the infection caused Manteufel's blood pressure to drop drastically, which severely reduced blood flow to his limbs and led to tissue death.
These bacteria are found in the mouths of cats and dogs, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Up to 74 percent of dogs and 57 percent of cats have Capnocytophaga, but the bacteria don't cause illness in dogs and cats, the CDC says.
In humans, however, it's a different story. In very rare cases, the bacteria can spread to humans through bites, scratches or close contact with cats and dogs. The people most at risk for this infection are those with weakened immune systems, according to the CDC. (It's unclear if Manteufel had a weakened immune system).
If a person becomes infected with Capnocytophaga, the bacteria can spread to the bloodstream and cause infections in various parts of the body, including a blood infection known as sepsis. Sepsis occurs when the immune system responds overwhelmingly to an infection, triggering body-wide inflammation and, potentially, organ failure.
Most people who get sick with the bacteria typically start experiencing symptoms within three to five days of becoming infected, but symptoms may occur anywhere from one to 14 days after infection, according to the CDC. Symptoms include blisters, redness, swelling, pus or pain around the animal bite location (if a bite was involved), fever, diarrhea, headache, vomiting and muscle or joint pain.
As in Manteufel's case, the infection can sometimes lead to gangrene, or tissue death, and require amputations to save the rest of the body.
Dr. Silvia Munoz-Price, an infectious-disease specialist with Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin told Fox 6 Now that the case is extremely rare. "More than 99 percent of the people that have dogs will never have this issue. It's just chance," she said.
July 4th 2018
Dozens of people in Texas have been sickened by a parasite called Cyclospora in recent months, health officials announced this week.
So far, health officials have identified 56 illnesses due to Cyclospora since May, according to a statement from the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS). Officials are still investigating the source of the illnesses.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a microscopic, single-celled parasite that causes an intestinal illness known as cyclosporiasis in people, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). [8 Awful Parasite Infections That Will Make Your Skin Crawl]
People become infected with Cyclospora when they consume food or water that's contaminated with feces containing the parasite. However, the infection typically isn't spread directly from person to person, because once the parasite is passed in stool, it needs to spend at least one to two weeks in the environment (outside the body) before it can infect another person, the CDC says. (The parasite needs time outside the body, where temperatures are lower, in order to mature.)
Cyclosporiasis is most common in tropical and subtropical countries, so people living in or traveling to these areas may be at increased risk for infection, the CDC says. But in the United States, outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have been linked with imported fresh produce, including raspberries, basil, snow peas, mesclun lettuce and cilantro. In recent years, Texas has had several outbreaks of Cyclospora tied to cilantro.
The main symptom of cyclosporiasis is watery diarrhea that lasts a few days to a few months, according to the DSHS. Other symptoms may include loss of appetite, fatigue, weight loss, abdominal cramps, bloating, increased gas, nausea, vomiting and a low fever.
People who have symptoms of cyclosporiasis should see their health care provider, the DSHS said in the statement. The infection is typically treated with a combination of two antibiotics, according to the CDC.
Last month, the CDC announced that it was investigating an outbreak of Cyclospora that sickened 185 people in four states: Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin and Michigan. That outbreak was linked to Del Monte Fresh Produce vegetable trays containing broccoli, cauliflower, celery sticks, carrots and dill dip. Health officials have not determined whether that outbreak and the Texas outbreak have a common source.
The DSHS recommends thoroughly washing all fresh produce, although this may not eliminate the risk of Cyclospora infection, because the parasite can be difficult to wash off. Cooking foods will kill the parasite, DSHS said.
June 19th 2018
The giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) is a towering weed that can cause vision loss and intense burns. But no, this poisonous plant doesn't come from Professor Sprout's botany syllabus at Hogwarts; instead, it's very real and was recently identified in Virginia, according to news reports.
A Virginian came across the giant plant and suspected that it could be bad news. So, he contacted local experts about it, including Jordan Metzgar, a curator with the Virginia Tech Massey Herbarium who helped identify the plant.
Sure enough, the towering weed — which can grow to over 14 feet (4.3 meters) tall and is topped with white flowers — turned out to be a giant hogweed. Though this was the first time the invasive plant was identified in Virginia, giant hogweed has already established a home across many parts of the mid-Atlantic, Northwest and New England regions; there are at least 400 giant hogweeds in 239 sites across New York alone, according to the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.
But what makes this plant so dangerous?
"The [plant's] sap is toxic and basically strips the body's ability to control the UV radiations from sunlight," said Joellen Lampman, an educator with the New York State Integrated Pest Management program at Cornell University. Without this ability, a person is much more susceptible to sunburns. [Naughty by Nature: The Most Disgusting and Deadly Flowers]
In particular, the sap contains compounds called "photosynthesizing furanocoumarins," Lampman told Live Science. Sunlight activates these compounds, which can lead to severe burns on a person's skin, according to Metzgar. The burns can worsen with moisture like from sweat or dew and heat, according to the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC).
The medical term for this type of burn is "phytophotodermatitis," a skin condition caused by extreme sensitivity to sunlight. "It's pretty horrific," Metzgar told Live Science. "It causes pretty severe burns … worse than [the typical] sunburn."
Phytophotodermatitis can also cause rashes, painful blisters, scarring and long-term sensitivity to sunlight, Lampman said. And if the sap gets into the eye, the toxins lead to vision loss.
"The recommendation is that if you think you've come into contact with [a giant hogweed] to wash with soap and water as soon as possible … stay out of the sun for 48 hours and see a physician," Lampman said.
"What's really scary about this one is the impacts it could have on children," Lampman said. "It … kind of looks like an umbrella, so you can envision children seeing that and breaking [the plant] off and carrying it around with them." But this would expose kids to the sap, she added.
People can encounter the sap all over the plant, but they primarily come into contact with it by breaking the plant's stem or leaves or even by touching its bristles, according to the NYSDEC.
Because of this, Lampman said that people should not try to get rid of the plants on their own, as this could expose them to the toxic sap. Instead, if you think you've seen a giant hogweed, Lampman recommends that you contact your state's department of environmental conservation, who can remove it. According to the NYSDEC, you should not use a "weed whacker" or brush cutter to get rid of the plant, as it could lead to sap spreading.
Metzgar noted that not every towering, scary-looking plant is a giant hogweed. Indeed, a native species called cow parsnip looks a lot like the giant hogweed and is much more widespread.
"If you're out and see a giant plant with white flowers, it's a good chance it's a cow parsnip," Metzgar said. Still, you should take some photos and report it to local agencies, he added. "You don't need to panic right away."
April 11th 2018
Rubber ducks are a menace, full of germs.
Sepsis kills 44,000 people a year in Britain – what is it and what are the signs?
It’s described as the silent killer. Sepsis – more commonly known as blood poisoning - is often mistaken for everyday illnesses, such as flu or a virus.
But the disease is far more dangerous and can kill quickly if not caught and treated early.
Sepsis is more common than heart attacks and kills more people than bowel, breast and prostate cancer combined. It costs our severely stretched NHS a staggering £2.93billion a year.
Every year, 150,000 people in the UK develop sepsis. Of those, 44,000 die.
A quarter of survivors – another 26,500 people – suffer life-changing disabilities, such as organ failure and amputated limbs.
Yet unlike heart attacks or cancer, awareness of the condition remains alarmingly low. Few of us know the symptoms of sepsis, and doctors regularly struggle to diagnose it early enough.
That is why bereaved families have joined forces with survivors of sepsis, doctors and the Government to launch a new campaign to raise awareness about the deadly disease.
Dr Ron Daniels, chief executive of the UK Sepsis Trust, says: “We could save 12,500 lives a year and improve the quality of life for another 100,000 survivors just by recognising sepsis earlier and delivering good basic care.
“That doesn’t require any costly drugs or investment in more intensive beds, just increasing awareness to make sure cases are caught early.”
Sepsis is caused by the body’s attempts to fight germs that enter it. They could be germs we come into contact with on a daily basis, such as bacteria on our skin or a chest infection.
A cut on the skin normally becomes red and swollen as the body sends more blood to the area to deliver more white blood cells to fight infection and platelets to stem the bleeding.
But if the immune system “overreacts” to an infection, the entire body becomes red and swollen. As too much blood leaks out of vessels, blood pressure plummets and vital organs, such as the heart and kidneys, become starved of blood and oxygen.
While diseases such as cancer are more likely to affect certain age groups or smokers, sepsis is an indiscriminate killer that can strike anyone at any time. It is also unpredictable, and the speed of the disease varies from case to case. Sometimes it takes three to four days to develop, whereas other people become seriously ill in just 12 hours.
Dr Daniels says: “It can affect athletes who have never smoked or drunk and who eat healthily. It can affect innocent babies and it can affect the elderly
“And in typically fit, healthy people in the prime of life it progresses more quickly because their immune system is more active anyway.”
William Meade, from Cornwall, was just one when he died from sepsis in September 2014. His tragic death has inspired local Lottery millionaire Peter Congdon, from Truro, to donate £6,000 to print new information leaflets which will be handed out to pregnant women. They will form a key part of the UK Sepsis Trust’s campaign, Ask Sepsis, to raise awareness.
'I thought I was going to die as I couldn't catch my breath' says sepsis survivor
The campaign, which launches on World Sepsis Day on September 13 and is backed by the Department of Health, will also include posters and symptom cards in GP surgeries and a 90-second video released on social media. A second campaign, Think Sepsis, aims to raise awareness about the symptoms among health professionals to ensure fewer cases are missed.
And healthcare regulator NICE (National Institute for Clinical Excellence) issued new guidelines last month demanding that doctors and nurses treat sepsis as an emergency on the same level of heart attacks to ensure patients get rapid treatment.
Dr Daniels says: “We will only have a reliable system when sepsis is given the same priority as heart attacks, cancer and strokes .
“If you or a loved one has an infection and starts to feel worse, and you know something is just not right, ask a health professional if it could be sepsis.”
Be aware of the warning signs
All ages should watch out for:
Slurred speech or confusion
Extreme shivering or muscle pain
Not passing urine in a day
Skin mottled, discoloured or unusually pale
Symptoms in children can also include:
A raised temperature – over 38C in tiny babies or over 39C in children over three months
Not wanting to play, being hard to wake or confused
Not eating or drinking for more than eight hours when awake, or being unable to keep fluid down
Only having one wee or wet nappy in an eight-hour period
A cough that sounds like a seal barking
The soft spot on a baby’s head bulging
Sunken-looking eyes, cold hands or lips turning blue
'My baby’s heart rate was so high doctors thought the monitor was broken'
Niamh Hodgkins was a happy, active one-year-old who loved chasing her two older sisters around – until she was struck down by sepsis.
At first mum Natalie thought Niamh was just teething, but when she stopped eating she took her to a GP and was told she had a viral infection.
The following day, a second GP diagnosed her with a chest infection and prescribed antibiotics.
Working in a GP surgery, Stella Benson was surrounded by doctors and nurses – but that didn’t help her spot the symptoms.
She felt suddenly tired while walking along the seafront one day in March 2011. The following day she struggled to do her job of practice administrator, suffering with a sore throat and earache. Her condition then deteriorated overnight.
By the next morning her lips were blue and she was in so much pain she couldn’t bear to be touched. She was also suffering from sickness and diarrhoea. Stella says: “I began to feel I was so ill I wasn’t going to make it through. I remember thinking, I’ve got the most appalling flu and it’s going to kill me.”
Stella’s husband Mark, an accountant, called an ambulance after she passed out and she was rushed to the Royal Sussex County Hospital, where she was taken straight to intensive care.
Stella 67, from Brighton, East Sussex, says: “I’m lucky my husband wasn’t at work that day, otherwise I wouldn’t be here now.”
She was put into an induced coma for two-and-a-half weeks and put on dialysis to ease the burden on her ailing kidneys.
Her family feared she wouldn’t survive.
When she eventually woke up, she had gangrene in her hands and legs as blood had stopped flowing to her extremities.
She had to have all her fingers amputated and lost both legs below the knee. She spent three months in hospital, then another three months in an intermediate care centre, learning to live independently.
Stella, who has two daughters and two grandchildren, says: “I’m alive and that’s what matters. I could lie in bed and feel sorry for myself, but I would rather be the badly behaved granny I always wanted to be.
“I knew about sepsis but it is so hard to spot. We are told that you shouldn’t go to the GP and waste their time if you have a sore throat, but that’s exactly how my ordeal started.
“People need to be aware of what symptoms to look out for if they start feeling worse.”
Jan 14th 2016
With regard to biological-contamination and home hygiene it is important that you get your
children into the habit of washing their hands regularly, a particular point to
note, make sure they wash their hands for at least 20 seconds after using the toilet and before they empty the dishwasher, as I'm sure you do.
I personally consider medical biological- contamination as a life-threatening issue as they can bring diseases, infections and many illnesses that can be fatal to human life, prevention can be helped by going through the information that buzcall.com provides.
But don’t worry we will tell you many things you need to know about biological contamination. Firstly, we will give you the definition for “living organisms” which include bacteria, fungi and viruses, or their products that can be hazardous to animal or human health if contacted.
You must prepare. Medical prevention is important and better than cure, below is some advice on what to do and some preventative measures that can make a big difference to you and your family well being and safety, what is money if you are not healthy enough to enjoy life.
Medical biological-contamination is a global problem and knowing the causes and prevention that we provide you will be a big help in keeping you and your family healthy.
Cleanliness and sterilization are very good ways to help prevent medical biological-contamination, by keeping everything clean as much as possible indoor and outdoor you prepare well.
Biological-contamination can give us sickness and health problems, buzcall.com suggests that we should build up a GOOD MEDICAL RESISTANCE so that we can fight these bad bacteria, enzymes, fungi, and viruses.
Taking good vitamins by eating healthy foods and drinking plenty of clean water will help boost our natural resistance.
To those who love eating street foods then we advise you to minimize or more importantly AVOID STREET FOOD as such foods could be contaminated, they are mostly not hygienic in their preparation, and under cooking is another cause of medical health problems.
Clean drinking water is very important and you should choose processed or purified water to avoid ingesting any biological contamination.
The symptoms of biological disease are fever, inflammation and malaise which is a feeling of bodily discomfort and weakness, If you any of these symptoms then we suggest that you to CONSULT A MEDICAL DOCTOR for a check-up and for laboratory tests if necessary.
Since biological contamination brings many different types of diseases, we advise you to prepare and ensure your vaccinations are up to date, this is especially important for your children and any infants.
When you prepare any foods be HYGIENIC, cook thoroughly and for your safety make sure the ingredients of the foods are clean and not gone off.
If you think that buying expired foods makes you save a lot of money then we advise you to think AGAIN of your medical safety; you may think you save money but it will cost you a lot more if you and your family become infected.
If you or your family have any contact with a person who may have a biological disease, we recommend you to stay well away at a distance to avoid any contamination being transmitted to you.
Always sterilize your utensils at home and never share the utensils or glass with anyone who you suspect has a biological disease of any sort.
Most importantly always wash your hands thoroughly after you have been to the toilet for at least 20 seconds is the recommended time.
Fortunately with modern communication systems these dangerous situations can be monitored easily and warnings issued by local government, civil defense, police, local radio and television.Home Page - medical - Biological-Contamination