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drinking habits

Feb 8th

6 ways to make drinking less your new normal

If you did Dry January, you may have survived it by staying in, only going out for work and the gym. But what if you want to drink less all year and still feel like the old you? Still have a life? And fun? Author Ruby Warrington has been on a seven-year quest to do exactly that.

In her new book Sober Curious, she describes all the ways she’s discovered to make sure alcohol plays a much smaller role in a fun and full live. She’s also gathered a community of thousands to her ClubSÖDA drink-free parties in the US and the UK.

“My generation of women grew up with the ladettes, Sex and the City, hard drinking like Kate Moss. Being able to drink as much as men, to hold your own drinking pints down the pub was seen as being a good feminist!” says Warrington, now 42.

She describes herself, in her 30s, as a regular, habitual, social drinker. “I always had it down that once I’d started, that’s it, I might was well get drunk. Why would I drink unless I wanted to get drunk?”

She knew she didn’t want to give up completely, as that wouldn’t work.“I don’t like rules. I’m not going to say I’m never going to drink because that’s ridiculous.” Dry January, she says, “is like doing a bootcamp, it’s got this mentality of deprivation around it.” But she also knew that the pull of alcohol is so strong, that she could easily end up over drinking.

“I like to use the word conscious drinking. If you think about it too much alcohol makes us literally unconscious, so conscious drinking could speak to drinking to a level where you’re never actually out of it,” she tells me.

The advice she gives in SoberCurious on how to drink less comes from “everyone I’ve witness on this moderate drinking path.” Some don’t drink, some do sometimes, some do quite often. In 2018, Warrington herself drank three times. “And on only one of those occasions was I drunk.”



“Think of yourself as a non drinker. And get really conscious about the times you want to drink.” Switch so non drinking becomes your default, rather than drinking. Think, “rather than what need to get out of my life, what am I choosing to get into my life?” If you describe what you’e doing as moderate drinking or drinking less, you’re still thinking of yourself as a drinker. “And inevitably because of the the nature of the substance you will end up drinking more than more consistency and more regularly and more than probably feels good.”

As a non drinker, if a time when you’d normally drink comes up, you have to then make the conscious decision to decide to drink. “Any time there is an instinct, opportunity, invitation expectation to drink, you then get to question, I’m a non drinker, how’s it going to be in this situation?”


It’s only when you stop drinking for two to three months, says Warrington, that you realise quite how strong alcohol is. Can’t face three months off? Take her word for it. “You’ll really notice that just a sip can completely change your state. Alcohol is a highly powerful psychoactive drink to be treated with caution, as you would treat any other drug.”

Scary fact from Warrington: alcohol is one of the five most addictive substance (after heroine, cocaine, crystal meth/speed, and before nicotine).


Having some fellow non drinkers out with you does help - although it is pretty fun going out with drinkers too, says Warrington. “I love that everyone gets a bit buzzed.” She advises you don’t make excuses about not drinking, just say, ‘I’m just not drinking tonight.’”
At some point, earlier than if you were drinking, it will stop being so fun.

“There’s a point when the switch gets flipped, personalities change. I think: you’re not really here any more. We call it ‘out of it’ for a reason.” She’s not judging, she stresses, but she that’s the time to get home.

Get to know what you really enjoy while sober - you may be surprised. Warrington has rediscovered clubbing - preferably in the afternoons. Find new times and places to socialise: brunches, walks in the park, tea dates, coffee dates.


“When I told my husband I was thinking about fully stropping drinking, he looked like he’d been told his best friend was moving to a different country,” says Warrington. It’s undeniably an adjustment for friends and loved ones, she says - no more big Thursdays, no more Sunday afternoon pints.

“We all use alcohol to speed up the feeling of connection.” But you can do it without alcohol - in fact it’s better, says Warrington. “I have found my connection whether it’s with friends or my husband are so much deeper. There’s a deeper level of intimacy, connection, acceptance.” That goes for her friends who are both drinkers and not.


This has to be the biggest motivation not to drink until you’re drunk- no hangovers. Even better, no more emotional hangover. From what Warrington has seen and experienced, that includes anxiety, depression, lethargy apathy, feeling hopeless, lack of confidence. “I think it can take months to clear that out.” Although, she adds, we are all different.

“Anecdotally I would say I can feel a big difference, a shift, after three weeks, a level of clarity that’s reached. As time goes on you notice more and more clarity and focus.”


The times you do decide you will drink, remember how drinking makes you lose your ability to stop drinking? “After two drinks you’ve basically lost your ability to make a good choice!” she says.

This may sound strange, but it works, says Warrington. She monitors sip by sip how a drink is making her feel - “Then I know when I get to a point where not enjoying this any more. It’s about being able to recognise the feeling in my body that if I drink any more, I’m going to start feeling tired, not communicate properly and I’m most definitely going to have a hangover tomorrow.”


Feb 2nd

Staying dry How my month off booze turned into a life of sobriety

Kate Gunn

January 30 2019 2:30 AMI gave up alcohol for 30 days. That was over two years ago now. I had never intended to stop drinking long term, in fact I had entered into the 30-day agreement with my boyfriend Aodhan under the strict condition that it was for one month and not a day more.

So what changed? Those 30 days were sometimes difficult, occasionally boring, but mostly a positive experience for me. I didn't miss the hellish hangovers and delighted in the early morning productivity and increased energy. My skin began to improve and I felt less low-lying anxiety as I went about my daily tasks.

During that first month, I spent the days being active and the nights laying low. Although I loved the daytime benefits, I had to admit, if only to myself, that my cup of peppermint tea to celebrate the weekend just wasn't really cutting it. I stayed at home on the weekends because I didn't believe that I could actually go out and socialise without drink. How could I? I'd been drinking my way through social occasions since I was about 16. Who was I without it?

Towards the end of the month, I sat down with Aodhan to discuss how we were getting on. We weighed up the pros and cons and decided to give it another month. No major commitments. Just one more month and then we could see if we wanted to finish the 90-day challenge we had been reading about.

It turns out that telling people you are doing a 90-day challenge is a lot easier than just telling them you're off the drink. It sounds more exciting, less restrictive, and also less judgemental of everyone else. Others are willing to give you a chance - sure it's only 90 days, it's not like you're one of those weirdos who doesn't drink. We all know that nobody trusts them.

But 90 days is also very different to Dry January or one month off the drink.

One month allows you to hide away from social occasions, hibernate from the night world for a while. The longer time-frame of 90 days forces you out into social scenes. Birthday parties, weddings, gigs and family dinners all need to be ticked off the list. This is where the greatest challenge - and the greatest benefits - are to be found. Surprisingly, you do find out who you are. With no alcohol to hide behind, no loosener to get things flowing, you find your own confidence. You discover you don't actually need drink in order to talk to your friends. You talk, listen, laugh and enjoy the night, and when you are ready to leave, your car is very handily waiting just outside in the car park. You've had the best part of the night - and you get to revel in the next day, hangover-free and full of energy. It's the unexpected gift that keeps on giving.

With this revelation, I began to wonder what other myths we had been sold. I questioned what our other motives for drinking are, and whether, like social confidence, the truth was different to what I had believed for all of those years.

I discovered that, like many, I drank as a reward. Good day - have a drink to celebrate. Bad day - have a drink to take the edge off. Special occasion - break open the bubbles. Sunny day - enjoy a cold beer in the garden. Cold day - you need a pint of Guinness by the fire. Every situation had a drink to go with it. But was it really the alcohol that was the making of the situation? Would the sunny day be just as enjoyable with a different drink that just happened not to be alcoholic? I had been so indoctrinated to alcohol being the key factor that I hadn't seen there was an alternative.

I also realised that, like many, I drank to destress. Whether it was a glass of wine at the end of a long week, or a full-on blowout to reset the system - I always thought alcohol was helping. Not so. It's now proven that alcohol only presses the pause button on stress and anxiety. Once the effects start to wear off, the symptoms actually come back worse than before. Without alcohol in my system, my anxiety petered out and stressful situations became so much more manageable. I felt much more capable of taking on issues or setbacks. And Sunday night fear became a thing of the past.

So one by one, the myths dissolved, the issues left, and the positive aspects kept multiplying. My productivity and happiness soared. I became that irritating Instagram friend who posts pictures of 5am swim rises and 10k runs. I finished a diploma, painted the house, did a triathlon, ran a sub-50-minute 10k race, hiked 120k of the Camino, was promoted in work, and wrote a book. Alcohol had been holding me back without my even realising it.

I also saved a heap of money. Going out becomes so much more affordable without endless bottles to buy and late-night taxis to hail. I actually began to go out more often because it wasn't such an expense, or a hassle, plus I didn't have to factor in next day hangovers. I do more now than I ever did with alcohol by my side.

I'm finally no longer embarrassed to say I don't drink - in fact I'm proud of it. And as time goes on, I realise that more and more other people are interested in how to do it too. And if you've just finished dry January and are considering staying away from alcohol, you might be one of them.

The health risks of alcohol are becoming so much more evident to us these days. Alcohol is linked to seven forms of cancer, including breast cancer and bowel cancer - the less you drink, the lower your risk. A bit like smoking really…

Alcohol can contribute to diabetes, heart disease and pancreatitis, as well as liver disease and mental health issues. But we're finally getting more clued in. The tide is beginning to turn - even here in Ireland. With big breweries such as Guinness, Heineken and Budweiser all bringing out new zero per cent alcohol beers, as well as independents like Brew Dog joining in, you know there has been serious thought put into how the market is changing.

Brand new spirits, such as Seedlip and Silk Tree, are giving non-drinkers more options when out on the town or at home. Coupled with alcohol-free prosecco and wines, non-drinkers are now spoiled for choice. Indeed, if you're still hiding the fact that you're on the dry, your friends probably won't even notice. And if you're a little further down the line and have managed to persuade a couple of others to join you, the first alcohol-free pub is just about to open its doors in Dublin. Our culture has normalised drinking so much that to not drink is considered suspicious and boring - but it's worth breaking the spell once in your adult life to see whether you like the view from the other side.

As for me, I'll be staying over here, enjoying life and looking forward to a better and healthier old age. I even started a pension with the money I saved from not drinking each month - so really, who said non-drinkers are boring?


Dec 29th 2018

Dry January benefits could last until August, study claims

As December draws to a close, many will start to think of ways to reinvigorate themselves in the new year, whether it’s by setting resolutions or by giving up alcohol for a month as part of Dry January.

If it’s the latter, you could see benefits up to eight months later, as new research led by the University of Sussex claims that those who abstain from drinking in January often continue to drink less in the following months.

It’s well-documented that eschewing alcohol can improve energy levels, boost skin health and prompt weight loss, but up until now, these effects have largely been considered short-term.

Dr Richard de Visser, a reader in psychology at the university, conducted the research by analysing the drinking habits of 800 people, all of whom took part in Dry January in 2018, via self-completed surveys.

The results showed that in the months the followed, on average, participants’ drinking days fell from 4.3 to 3.3 per week, the units they consumed per day dropped from 8.6 to 7.1 and the frequency of them being drunk went down from 3.4 times per month to 2.1.

“The simple act of taking a month off alcohol helps people drink less in the long term: by August people are reporting one extra dry day per week,” comments de Visser, who added that Dry January may offer some significant lifestyle benefits, such as saving money and improving sleep.

For example, of those who took part in the study, 67 per cent had more energy, 58 per cent lost weight and 57 per cent had better concentration levels.

“Interestingly, these changes in alcohol consumption have also been seen in the participants who didn’t manage to stay alcohol-free for the whole month – although they are a bit smaller.

“This shows that there are real benefits to just trying to complete Dry January.”

Commenting on the results, Dr Richard Piper, CEO of Alcohol Change UK, adds that for some people, Dry January can be life-changing.

We hear every day from people who took charge of their drinking using Dry January, and who feel healthier and happier as a result.

“The brilliant thing about Dry January is that it’s not really about January,” he says.

“Being alcohol-free for 31 days shows us that we don’t need alcohol to have fun, to relax, to socialise.

“That means that for the rest of the year we are better able to make decisions about our drinking, and to avoid slipping into drinking more than we really want to.”

Dec 13th 2018

A glass of red wine a day really DOES keep the doctor away,

·       A study of 21,000 men and women found moderate drinkers were healthier 

·       Over six years 13,000 people ended up in hospital with average age of 56

·       But those who didn't touch a drop were 11% more likely to have gone to hospital 

·       A glass of red wine a day keeps the doctor away, a Harvard study has found.

·       Those who enjoy a tipple, but not too much, are less likely to be admitted to hospital than teetotallers.

·       The study looked at 21,000 men and women in Italy and found that for moderate drinkers, when mixed with a typically Mediterranean diet, a small glass of wine (125ml) a day lowered the chance of needing medical treatment compared with heavier boozers or those that abstain.

·       Over six years, there were 13,000 hospital admissions for those taking part, who had an average age of 56.

·       Those who never touched a drop were 11 per cent more likely to find themselves hospitalised than the glass-a-day club. 

·       Previous studies have suggested red wine, in moderation, can be good for your heart, containing compounds that lower heart disease.

·       But Dr Ken Mukamal, of the Harvard Medical School, said: 'We are absolutely not saying that any teetotaller should start drinking to improve his/her health.'

·       The study was published in the journal Addiction


Nov 29th 2018

The moment you realise you're a functioning alcoholic

As a forty-something, middle class woman with a good job, house, husband and kids, some would think I had it all. I had the ability of appearing to be happy and in control of my life but inside I was the opposite, and somehow was living my life as a functioning alcoholic.

I believe I was born this way. I believe there is something in my genetic makeup that means when I take an alcoholic drink, I have an inability to stop until I cannot physically consume any more. The first drink would be the hardest, I would swear off another and insist that I was ‘only going to have this one tonight’. I would test my resolve but I always failed and despite my best intentions I always finished the bottle. It was a bit like having a huge sense of relief that it then made it okay to have another drink, then another until the bottle was done.

Growing up I was always the most drunken person in the room, I loved to dance and being drunk gave me confidence. I developed my party girl persona and sometimes wore it like a badge of honour. Throughout my twenties this was a right of passage; I surrounded myself with a group of friends that all behaved the way I did, and so I naturally moved in the crowds who drank heavily, or at least would tolerate me drunk. I always drank to blackout and had this sense that if I wasn’t in blackout then I wasn’t drunk, that this drinking was perfectly normal behaviour - and I assumed everyone did the same.

More recently I found out what blackout meant, and it was really quite unnerving. Blackout is when your brain has been saturated with so much alcohol that you can no longer form memories. A lot of people think that they simply forget what has happened, but the reality is you have never remembered in the first place.

Home drinking began in my thirties. I was now married with two kids and drinking at home became normal, with me regularly drinking at least a bottle of wine a night. I was working full-time so I had this sense of entitlement and that somehow I deserved it.

In my working life I would talk to other working mums and would actively seek them out, so I could question them on their drinking habits to ensure what I was doing was the same as everyone else. Once I found someone with the similar identity then it would justify my behaviour and allow me to carry on. Although it took me a long time to realise that I would drink because I was bored, tired, happy, sad or just because I damn well deserved it.

After a heavy night, the next morning would be fuelled with regret and the potential embarrassment of what I might have done or said. I would swear off another drink ever again and would really mean it. I would go to work, pretending desperately that I was fine but in reality my head would be throbbing and I would be feeling so ill.

On and on this behaviour continued with my drinking getting worse and worse. I took a decision to end my marriage as we were both miserable, and made plans to change my job. I was always looking for an emotional fix to change a mental problem. I was sure that if just one of these areas improved then I wouldn’t feel the need to get drunk all the time. Needless to say, none of these changes made any difference as I hadn’t truly looked why I was so obsessed with alcohol, and that I was in fact an alcoholic.

One Saturday morning in December 2015, after a very messy Friday night, I surrendered and was exhausted. I was so tired of who I was and how I behaved that I couldn’t do it anymore but had no idea of how to stop.

Slowly people had been backing away from me, and I was more alone that I had ever been. That Saturday morning was most definitely my rock bottom and with thatrealisation I phoned Alcoholics Anonymous and asked them for help.

If you need help with a drinking problem, call the Alcoholics Anonymous national helpline for free on 0800 9177 650 or email help@aamail.org.

For advice on how to reduce drinking, visit Drinkaware’s website or Alcohol Concern.

Find alcohol addiction services near you using this NHS tool.


Sept 22nd 2018

WHO: Alcohol responsible for one in 20 of all deaths

Alcohol is responsible for more than 5% of all deaths worldwide, or around 3 million a year, new figures have revealed.

The data, part of a report from the World Health Organization, shows that about 2.3 million of those deaths in 2016 were of men, and that almost 29% of all alcohol-caused deaths were down to injuries – including traffic accidents and suicide.

The report, which comes out every four years, reveals the continued impact of alcohol on public health around the world, and highlights that the young bear the brunt: 13.5% of deaths among people in their 20s are linked to booze, with alcohol responsible for 7.2% of premature deaths overall.

It also stresses that harm from drinking is greater among poorer consumers than wealthier ones.

While the proportion of deaths worldwide that have been linked to alcohol has fallen to 5.3% since 2012, when the figure was at 5.9%, experts say the findings make for sobering reading.

Cause of death charts

A WHO alcohol-control expert, Dr Vladimir Poznyak, who was involved in the report, said the health burden of alcohol was “unacceptably large”.

“Unfortunately, the implementation of the most effective policy options is lagging behind the magnitude of the problems,” he said, adding that projections suggested both worldwide alcohol consumption and the related harms were set to rise in the coming years.

“Governments need to do more to meet the global targets and to reduce the burden of alcohol on societies; this is clear, and this action is either absent or not sufficient in most of the countries of the world,” said Poznyak.

Poznyak said the latest figures were likely to underestimate the true picture. “Alcohol use starts in many countries well before [age] 15, so that is why we can say that our estimates are quite conservative, because we don’t count at all the impact of alcohol consumption on kids below 15,” he said.

But there is some cause for optimism. The report notes that the percentage of drinkers is falling in a number of regions, including Europe and the Americas. What’s more, while alcohol consumption per person (including non-drinkers) has remained steady overall, it has fallen from 10.9 litres of pure alcohol in 2012 to 9.6 litres in 2016 in Europe. The overall figure remains highest in Europe, although when only the drinking population is considered, the per person figure is higher in Africa and the eastern Mediterranean region.

Perhaps surprisingly, worldwide almost 45% of recorded alcohol is consumed as spirits, with beer accounting for just over 34% and wine making up less than 12% of the total. That said, more than a quarter of all alcohol consumed falls outside the radar of official statistics.

The report also takes stock of alcohol policies around the world, revealing patchy efforts to restrict advertising or make sure drinks carry health and safety warnings.

Dr James Nicholls, director of research and policy development at Alcohol Concern/Alcohol Research UK, said the figures confirm that alcohol consumption and harm is falling in Europe, showing that cultures and behaviour around alcohol can change.

“Still, Europe remains the highest-consuming region globally, and we know that it is still a major cause of ill-health in the UK – especially in more deprived areas,” he said.

The report reveals that in the UK, the total alcohol consumed per person among drinkers aged 15 and over was 7.6 litres for women and 21.8 litres for men. What’s more, 13% of men and 4.7% of women in the UK were deemed to have alcohol-use disorders; the average for the European region was 8.8%.

Nicholls said the report flags that, overall, there is a growth in alcohol consumption in developed countries that reflects concerted efforts by alcohol producers to export a “European” drinking culture across the world. Rajiv Jalan, professor of hepatology at University College London, said that among the key issues was the age of consumption, with almost 44% of 15-19 year olds in European region being active drinkers. “We allow our kids to drink from the age of 16, underage drinking, and I think that is a serious issue that we need to hit on the head,” he said. “Kids are going to casualty drunk from school parties.”

Jalan called the report a wake-up call, saying it is “seriously worrying” that in Europe alcohol is responsible for more than 10% of all deaths.

He said: “The biggest problem that we have is that, certainly in Europe and if you focus more on the UK, there isn’t really a strategy which is all-encompassing in order to address this death rate. All the different elements that are known to work have not yet been implemented.”

Noting that while Scotland had recently introduced minimum alcohol pricing, England had not followed suit, Jalan said all eyes were now on Scotland to see if lessons could be learned for other countries from the policy.

“Hopefully that will show a difference, but by that time many, many other people will be dead,” he said.


Sept 17th 2018

Will a sober October lead to long-term health benefits

One of the biggest problems with alcohol is that it is so deeply embedded into the marrow of everyday life. Avoiding it is difficult, so much so that giving up for a month – not that long in the greater scheme of things – has become one of those monumental challenges that people take on for charity, like running a marathon or jumping out of a plane.

Last year, 75,000 people signed up for Go Sober for October, raising £5m for Macmillan Cancer Support while recalibrating their relationship with alcohol.

Not to be confused with Stoptober (the smoking cessation campaign from Public Health England), Go Sober for October provides a second annual chance to join a mass, month-long break from booze. 

If you failed at Dry January (being snowed in calls for nips of brandy, right?), you still get another shot at giving up for a bit without being roundly eyed with suspicion and disapproval. With one in five adults drinking over the recommended upper limit of 14 units a week, according to a YouGov poll this year, livers up and down the land must be breathing sighs of relief.

The only worry is whether hordes of us are falling for the urban myth that a month of polishing your halo somehow offsets the ill effects of drinking heavily for the rest of the year. This is the main criticism levelled at the month-off approach to responsible drinking. “It isn’t a detox that resets the clock,” says Gautam Mehta of University College London, the lead author of a study published in the Lancet earlier this year investigating the health gains from a month off alcohol (the only one so far).

That is not to say there are not significant health benefits to Go Sober for October. It is just that they will be quickly undone if business as usual is resumed afterwards. Mehta’s study looked at moderate to heavy drinkers, all consuming more than the recommendations. “The average intake was around 28 units [a week],” says Mehta, “but they were professional working people without any history of alcohol-related health problems.” After their month of sobriety, their insulin resistance – a marker for diabetes – improved by about 25%. Blood pressure went down by “what you’d tend to expect if you take drugs to treat high blood pressure”, he says. The subjects also lost a little weight (just under 2kg/4.4lb on average).

Blood tests for liver function and inflammation all showed small but significant improvements at the end of the month, but this does not imply that a damaged liver will fully recover in this time. “I don’t think we can say there’s a big improvement in the degree of liver disease,” says Mehta. He cites previous research which has found that liver fat (a precursor to fibrosis scarring and eventual cirrhosis) will also improve a little, “but it’s hard to know if that’s a really important finding”. 

“If someone’s got liver scarring or fibrosis, that certainly won’t change with just a month off,” he says.

The team also looked at proteins in the blood called growth factors, which are linked with some cancers. These also dropped significantly over the month. This is not proof that the actual cancer risk was reduced, but Mehta says that it is an interesting and novel finding that warrants further investigation. “Alcohol and cancer is a story that’s been evolving, and a lot of the rationale for the reduction to 14 units [a week] in the official guidelines was based on new data around the association with cancer.”

The aim of the study, he says, was not to prove or disprove the validity of a month-long abstention, but to show the relationship between alcohol and all of the above serious health markers. “It’s really about informed risk,” he says. “I still drink alcohol but I have more of an idea about the effect that’s having on my blood pressure, my glucose handling, my risk of long-term heart disease, stroke and liver disease. This helps me make choices.”

The government does not advise taking a month off alcohol, favouring instead having alcohol-free days every week. This month Public Health England has reinforced this message with a new drink-free-days campaign, as well as an app to help monitor alcohol intake. “I think monitoring is a good idea, just knowing how much you drink,” says Mehta. “And having alcohol-free days stops people getting into bad habits and makes them a bit more reflective on what they’re drinking.”

What no one has studied yet, though, is whether this approach would lead to the same up-front health gains as a month off. “You could postulate,” says Mehta, “that we think that one of the ways alcohol causes damage is by making the gut a bit leaky, allowing bacterial proteins (not whole bacteria) to get through and cause low-level inflammation in the body. Giving up for a few days may improve that, but it’s a bit speculative as to the long-term effects.”

The heavy intoxication that comes with binge-drinking brings its own added dangers, but, according to Peter Rice, an addiction psychiatrist and the chair of Scottish Health Action on Alcohol Problems, in terms of alcohol-related diseases it matters less how you divide your alcohol-free time. Your long-term overall alcohol dose is what counts. “If you’re a daily drinker,” he says, “if you do the arithmetic, taking two days off a week [that’s 104 days over a year] is likely to reduce your drinking more than taking a month off a year.” Regardless, the most important thing is finding the method that is most realistically achievable for individuals.

Common sense dictates that the ideal plan would be to do Go Sober for October and then introduce weekly booze-free days when you are back on the wagon. Helpfully, it looks as if the former could well pave the way for the latter. A study in 2015 from Sussex University enlisted more than 800 participants in Dry January, and found that afterwards, their ability to confidently say no to alcoholic drinks improved, while their consumption of alcohol went down, whether they had succeeded in quitting for the entire month or not.

That said, less than a quarter of participants responded to the researchers when approached six months later. It is unclear why, but Matt Field, a psychologist specialising in addiction at University of Sheffield, shares the concern that some might take a month off as a licence to spend the rest of the year imbibing hard liquor. We need, he says, “an objective measure of whether participants are telling the truth. If you ever take an alcohol diary, it’s quite an eye-opener – people aren’t aware of how much they’re really drinking.”

Mehta’s team proved more successful at contacting their 94 participants at the six-month mark. “We got hold of about two-thirds of them. The vast majority cut back on their alcohol intake and that was because they felt so much better having done a month off.”

One key to success, says Field, is the momentum and support around social movements such as Go Sober for October. “These campaigns help people say no, and highlight the extent to which we drink without even wanting to, because it is ingrained, automatic behaviour. Anything that raises awareness of that can only be a good thing.”

Sept 4th 2018

How your hangover still affects you even after you think it's gone

The relief you feel the moment you notice your pig of a hangover beginning to fade is pretty much indescribable. It's such a burden lifted.

But while you think you're all better the moment your head stops pounding and you no longer feel like you're going to puke, it seems there may actually still be a lot going on inside.

According to a research project carried out by experts at the University of Bath, brain impairment can continue in a person even when the alcohol in their system has metabolised.

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By the time last night's alcohol has left your body (booze metabolises at a rate of approximately one unit per hour, don't forget), you usually feel like you're good to go again - and probably even assume you're safe to drive. However, this new research suggests that your "performance of everyday activities such as driving, and workplace skills such as concentration and memory" are still be impaired even after your alcohol levels return back to normal. 

The lead author of the meta-analysis, Craig Gunn, explained how the researchers reviewed 19 existing studies to conclude this information. "We found that hangover impaired psychomotor speed, short and long term memory and sustained attention," he said.

"Impaired performance in these abilities reflects poorer concentration and focus, decreased memory and reduced reaction times the day after an evening of heavy drinking," his explanation continued.

Gunn pointed out that further research on alcohol hangovers needs to be carried out, but from what they can gather so far, don't expect to be sharp as nails the day after a boozy one (or to remember much).

Aug 25th 2018

There's No 'Safe' Level of Alcohol Consumption, Global Study Finds

Drinking alcohol in moderation is more harmful than previously thought, according to a new study that concludes there's no "safe" level of alcohol consumption.

The comprehensive study, which analyzed information from millions of people in nearly 200 countries, found that alcohol is tied to nearly 3 million deaths globally each year, with about 1 in 10 deaths linked to alcohol use among people ages 15 to 49.

What's more, any protective health effects of alcohol were offset by the drink's risk, including strong links between alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer and injuries such as those resulting from car accidents. [7 Ways Alcohol Affects Your Health]

"The widely held view of the health benefits of alcohol needs revising," the researchers wrote in their paper, published online Aug. 23 in the journal The Lancet. "Our results show that the safest level of drinking is none."

The findings contrast with most health guidelines, which say that moderate drinking — about one drink a day for women and two for men — is safe.

However, it's difficult to estimate the risks for a person who drinks fairly infrequently — such as someone who has one drink every two weeks — so the findings might not apply to this population. "[It] doesn't mean, if you drink on birthdays and Christmas, you're going to die," said Keith Humphreys, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford University who was not involved in the study.  

Rather, the findings apply more to people who have one drink a day, most days of the week, Humphreys said. Contrary to what some previous studies have found, "the kind of person who drinks every week, but never drinks much, is in fact not better off than somebody who doesn't drink," according to the new study, Humphreys told Live Science.

No "safe" level

The study analyzed information from nearly 700 previous studies to estimate how common drinking alcohol is worldwide, and examined almost another 600 studies including a total of 28 million people to investigate the health risks tied to alcohol.

The researchers found that, globally, about 1 in 3 people (32.5 percent) drink alcohol, which is equivalent to 2.4 billion people worldwide, including 25 percent of women and 39 percent of men.

Worldwide, drinking alcohol was the seventh-leading risk factor for early death in 2016, accounting for about 2 percent of deaths in women and 7 percent of deaths in men. For people ages 15 to 49, alcohol consumption was tied to 4 percent of deaths for women and 12 percent for men in 2016.

The study found that moderate drinking was, in fact, protective against ischemic heart disease. But this benefit was outweighed by the health risks of alcohol.

Specifically, for people who consume one drink a day, the risk of developing one of 23 alcohol-related health problems increases by 0.5 percent over one year, compared with someone who doesn't drink.

But the risk increases rapidly the more people drink. For people who consume two drinks a day, the risk of developing one of the 23 alcohol-related health problems increases by 7 percent over one year, and for those who drink five drinks a day, the risk increases by 37 percent over one year. [Top 10 Leading Causes of Death]

"Alcohol poses dire ramifications for future population health in the absence of policy action today," Emmanuela Gakidou, a professor of global health at the University of Washington's Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation and a co-author of the study, said in a statement.

The researchers said that, based on their results, public health campaigns should consider recommending abstinence from alcohol.

Alcohol abstinence?

Humphreys called the work the "most sophisticated global study of the impact of alcohol on human health ever conducted."

"The study confirms that alcohol is one of the world's leading causes of disability, disease and death," Humphreys said.

However, in terms of recommending abstinence from alcohol, Humphreys said that promoting such a message would be difficult, in part because of the large number of people who currently drink alcohol and the influence of powerful industries in the alcohol market. "I'm not saying it's a terrible idea," Humphreys said, but "it would be a very tough uphill battle to be established."

Still, in addition to considering abstinence, the researchers called for other policies that focus on reducing the population's consumption of alcohol, such as increasing alcohol taxes, controlling the availability of alcohol and the hours it can be sold, and regulating alcohol advertising. "Any of these policy actions would contribute to reductions in population-level consumption, a vital step toward decreasing the health loss associated with alcohol use," Gakidou said.

The study was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Aug 9th 2018

How much do you drink? Whatever you say, 'your GP will double it'

However much you say you drink, your doctors will double the figure, new research suggests.

Polling of almost 200 GPs found they were unlikely to believe patients when they grilled them on their lifestyle habits.

Most used an “alcohol multiplier” - assuming that patients were likely to admit to drinking around half as much as they really do, the polling by insurers found.

A parallel survey of adults found many had little idea how much they were drinking - and even less idea what consitutes a safe limit.

It follows warnings that the baby boomer generation is fast becoming the booziest age group, with men and women in their 70s suffering the results of decades of excess.

The survey of 191 doctors by Direct Line Life Insurance found that overall, they believed just 40 per cent of patients accurately represent how much alcohol they consume. Young women were the most likely to underestimate their intake.

And GPs reckoned 21 per cent of their patients had symptoms of high alcohol dependency, with a further 19 per cent showing moderate dependence.

The survey of 2,000 adults found many admitted to being economical with the truth, when doctors asked them about their drinking habits.

Advice from Dame Sally Davies, the country’s chief medical officer, says men and women should drink no more than 14 units of alcohol a week.

The guidance - which brought men’s limits down in 2016, followed advice from Dame Sally to women to “do as I do” and think about the risks of breast cancer before having a glass of wine.

Almost one third of those polled did not know what the limits are, and one in five said they regularly drank more.

One in five said they did not keep track, while 16 per cent said “everyone misrepresents how much they drink”. Almost as many - 14 per cent - feared being judged by their family doctor, with just as many deciding the information was irrelevent.

More than one in ten admitted they were surprised by how much they were drinking, when they calculated their units, and said they revised down their total, telling their doctors their habits were in line with recommended guidelines.

Andrew Misell, a director at Alcohol Concern and Alcohol Research UK, said: "This is not the first piece of research to indicate that we don't always tell the truth about how much we drink. A lot of us, if we're honest with ourselves, will be able to remember occasions when we've been economical with the truth when discussing with our doctor how much we eat, drink and exercise. It really highlights our strange relationship with alcohol. We don't mind joking about heavy drinking episodes, but we clam up when asked to talk seriously about how much we drink and why." 

Professor Helen Stokes-Lampard, Chairman of the Royal College of GPs, said family doctors were not “killjoys” and that it was best to tell them the truth.

“Over-consumption of alcohol can have a huge negative effect on our health and wellbeing, so being honest with your GP or other healthcare professional, as well as yourself, about how much you drink is an important first step in understanding how it could be impacting your life.

“GPs understand that it might sometimes be difficult for people to keep track of how much alcohol they drink, and that some patients might not want to disclose the amount because they’re embarrassed or worried about being judged by their doctor. But patients should be reassured that GPs are medical professionals, highly trained to have sensitive, non-judgemental conversations about anything that might be affecting their overall health and wellbeing,” she said.

The GP said everyone should be encouraged to try to limit their intake to a maximum of 14 units a week, with at least two alcohol-free days a week.

ane Morgan, business manager at Direct Line Life Insurance, said: “Most of us enjoy a drink from time to time, but no matter how much alcohol you consume it’s important to be honest with your doctor about it. Without all the correct information about your lifestyle you may not get the right diagnosis or treatment.”

She also said customers should be honest about their drinking when buying health or life insurance policies.

Helen Clark, deputy director of drugs, alcohol and tobacco at PHE said: “It’s all too easy for the amount of alcohol you drink to creep up on you. That’s why it’s important people try to keep track of how much they’re drinking.

"The Chief Medical Officer’s advice is not to regularly drink more than 14 units a week. Some glasses of wine can contain as many as three units of alcohol. Our One You Drink Free Days app is a simple and easy way to help track and reduce your drinking.”

July 8th 2018

How to cure a bad hangover - fast and quick cures from best foods to science-approved tricks

Partied too hard last night? Don't worry, we've got your back.

Your liver is screaming at you, your head is banging - you're a quivering wreck.

Whether it's a greasy fry-up or pint of water we all have our remedies to shaking off that hangover, but what's the best cure?

There's plenty of options, from the traditional home cures to science approved tricks.

Here's how to cure a hangover next time you find yourself shaking the morning after.

1. Drink lots of water

We're starting with an obvious one, but it's also the best.

Drinking alcohol stops the body from creating a chemical called vasopressin, which means your kidneys send water straight to your bladder instead of absorbing into the body.

It's also behind the reason for needing to go to the toilet so many times while you're actually drinking.

This also leads to dehydration, as the body can expel up to four times as much water, and is probably why you've got that thumping headache and dry mouth.

The best solution is to put a nice big pint of water (or two) beside your bed before you head out. That way you'll remember to drink it when you get in.

Make sure you keep drinking plenty of water when you wake up the next morning too.

We're supposed to drink eight glasses a day anyway so that should give you some idea.

2. Drink a can of fizzy drink

A can of sprite might be just what you need

A Chinese study looking at 57 different beverages found that the lemon and lime pop helped process the alcohol out of your system quicker, speeding your recovery.

Sprite was among the drinks that sped up this process the most, causing the alcohol to be broken down faster, therefore reducing the duration of a hangover.

Jane Scrivner, author of The Quick-Fix Hangover Detox: 99 Ways To Feel 100 Times Better, said: “It has a high water content to rehydrate you and is high in sugar for an instant pick-me-up, yet the simple sugars mean you’re likely to soon come crashing back down.

"But its lemon and lime juice content is alkaline and will help balance the acid in your gut, quelling feelings of nausea.

"Fizzy water with a squeeze of fresh lemon is a better option.”

3. Painkillers

It's another obvious choice - especially when you wake up with that feeling like your head's in a vice - but the NHS actually recommends taking painkillers .

It says that buying over-the-counter pills can help with headaches and muscle cramps but avoid aspirin as it can further irritate the stomach and increase feelings of sickness.

Instead, opt for a paracetamol-based remedy or ibuprofen lysine, which absorbs quicker and one with codeine (found in 'plus' brands) is like taking two painkillers at once, experts say.

4. Eat up

There's always an urge to reach for big, greasy plate of food in the morning to help cure that hangover and it is an option that can work for many people.

The fat in your fry-up contains lots of calories, so you’ll get an energy boost, while eggs and meat are rich in the amino acid cysteine, which is thought to be good at clearing out toxins.

However, experts actually recommend that a bland breakfast can help restore blood sugar levels and without causing anymore stomach problems.

Crackers, toast or a thin vegetable-based broth are some of the options put forward by the NHS .

Alcohol can also deplete your potassium levels so eating a banana or two will actually help

5. Disolvable tablets

Popping one of these disolvable tablets in a glass of water is a great way of replacing nutrients lost through alcohol.

They contain vitamin C, B vitamins as well as calcium and magnesium.

There also a great way of downing some water if you're not keen on the taste and come in a variety of flavours - but make sure you've stocked up because most chemists will be closed on New Year's Day.

6. Milk Thistle

The Romans used it to treat sick children and snakebites.

Milk thistle contains silymarin - which is recommended for liver disorders. However, experts are divided. Some suggest it can help treat liver disease caused by alcohol abuse. But other studies show it has no benefits to improving liver function.

7. Porridge

Although Rhiannon Lambert , a Registered Nutritionist and founder of leading Harley Street clinic Rhitrition isn't a big drinker, she has a recipe up her sleeve for those occasions when she does indulge.

"With hydration being a cornerstone of health living, I always remind myself to drink far more water on the day after drinking that I would normally so it could easily be over 2 litres.

"On the menu would be a refreshing smoothie bowl or a filling porridge with nut butter and berries."

8. Guacamole on toast

Avocado was always going to be on this list in some shape or form.

Manal Chouchane, Clinical Nutritionist at BioCare has a craving-busting recipe for those mornings when you feel like your brain keeps hitting the side of your skull.

"Guacamole on toast and coconut water," she says.

"This would satisfy our cravings for high carbohydrate and fat foods when we are hungover, yet still providing good quality fats for nourishing our bodies.

"Coconut water is ideal for hydration and providing electrolyte balance."

How to prevent a hangover?

·       Consume sugar while drinking

·       Drink water as well as alcohol

·       Drink at least a pint or water before you got to bed

·       Grease up before you go

·       Eat ginger

Weird hangover cures around the worldLemon

Puerto Ricans reportedly believe that rubbing a lemon into your armpit whilst drinking could prevent the next morning becoming a nightmare.

And it makes you smell nice, which is probably the only scientifically proven part of this remedy.

Raw egg

A classic hangover cure called a Prairie Oyster involves mixing an egg yolk with Worcestershire sauce as well as salt and pepper.

This should then be swallowed whole, taking care not to break the egg.

However, this cure is not recommended for pregnant women - or anyone else for that matter.

Sparrow droppings in Brandy

After drinking many of us swear never to touch a drop of alcohol again, but this old Hungarian cure is an extreme hair of the dog.

Some say if you get a sparrow to do its business in a brandy glass, swill it around and knock it back, you’ll be right as rain.

Probably one to avoid though – not only does it sound grim but we’re not sure how hygienic it would be.

Sheep's Brain

Again not one for the faint-hearted, but apparently sheep brain could help when your own feels scrambled.

In South Africa a traditional hangover cure is to melt a sheep’s stomach walls in a pot with witblits moonshine, Umqombothi beer or any of the country’s famed wines.

Deep fried canary

Ancient Romans might have been ahead of their time when it came to munching on deep fried goodies as a hangover cure.

They used to believe eating a deep fried canary would help ease your stomach.

Dried bull penis

Italians are the brains behind another quirky hangover cure.

An old Sicilian belief is that nibbling a bull’s private parts can help the morning after the night before – but their golden rule was it had to be cut and dried first.

Raw eels and almonds

Warning: Do not try this cure as it could be your last Christmas.

The Medieval idea was to encourage sore-headed drinkers to munch bitter almonds and raw eels.

Not surprisingly its popularity has worn off over the years.

Pickle juice

Hold your nose and down this is a widely accepted hangover cure. The vinegar, water and sodium combo is the ultimate pick-me-up, combating dehydration and boosting energy. It’s worth adding honey to sweeten it.

The Prairie Oyster

This 19th century “hangover cure” is a cocktail of tomato juice, a whole raw egg, Worcestershire sauce, red wine vinegar and a dash of Tabasco sauce.

It replenishes the water, salts and electrolytes that alcohol has depleted.

In processing booze, the body also creates other toxic chemicals.

By introducing new toxins into your body, such as capsaicin in Tabasco sauce, your body temporarily turns away from alcohol processing, delaying or eliminating a lot of your symptoms.

Science approved hangoversRU-21

Created by the KGB just after the Second World War, this secret drug was designed to keep agents sober so that they could outdrink their opponents before helping themselves to their secrets.

It didn't stop them from getting drunk but it did block the toxic chemical acetaldehyde, which damages tissues and leads to hangovers.

RU-21 was popular among hell-raising Hollywood stars a decade or so ago, as it allowed them to party while appearing fresh-faced on set the next morning.

It’s not just for celebs though – you can 120 RU-21 pills for under £20 online.


A recently-developed drug, and the product of a decade of work by British, Belgian and Italian scientists.

They reckon that it will reduce the harmful effects on the brain caused by binge drinking – perfect for the post-Christmas party comedown.

If you’re worried that it won’t work, don’t be – it’s been tested on drunken rats.

And you’re bound to encounter one or two of those during your festive season


A vitamin supplement that is chock full of natural ingredients and vegetarian-friendly (which presumably means no essence of bacon).

You can get a 30-day batch for £30 but you have to take three pills a day, which is a bit of a commitment – and tricky to keep up with if you’re planning to be drunk a lot of the time.

The reviews are almost unanimously positive though, so this could be the miracle hangover cure you’ve waited your whole life for.

Intravenous drips

Intravenous drips provide a quick way to administer fluids when you are feeling unwell.

Traditionally they've only been offered to sick people in hospital or LA health freaks, but since October they've become available in the UK, thanks to a clinic called Reviv , which promises to sort you out within 10 minutes.

In addition to fluids, the IV drip contains a cocktail of drugs for pain-relief and stomach settling.

June 2018

Here's the Latest Study on the Links Between Alcohol and Cancer

Drinking less alcohol may be linked to a lower risk of cancer, a new study suggests.

In the study, researchers found that people who drank some alcohol had a lower risk of cancer and death from any cause during a nine-year period than those who drank more or none.

In particular, people who had fewer than seven drinks a week had the lowest risk of cancer and death, compared with those who had seven or more drinks a week, according to the study, published today (June 19) in the journal PLOS Medicine. And with each additional drink a week, the risk of cancer and death from any cause increased, the scientists reported.

However, the study found only an association between alcohol and cancer and death, and did not prove cause and effect, the researchers said.

What sets the new study apart, said lead study author Andrew Kunzmann, a postdoctoral research fellow at Queen's University Belfast in Ireland, is that previous studies have tended to look at cancer and mortality separately. [7 Ways Alcohol Affects Your Health]

"That tends to give very different messages about what the role of alcohol and health is," Kunzmann told Live Science. Most existing evidence suggests that light-to-moderate drinkers had the lowest risk of dying from various causes during the study period, yet "never drinkers" had the lowest risk of developing cancer, he said.

"What our study does is combine the two outcomes together and [finds] that lighter drinking is associated with the lowest risk of cancer or death," Kunzmann said. And those who had no drinks or more than one drink a day were more at risk for death or cancers, most commonly esophageal and liver cancer and cancers of the head or neck regions, Kunzmann said.

In the study, the team analyzed data about lifetime alcohol use from questionnaires that were given to the nearly 100,000 participants in the United States between 1998 and 2000. The questionnaires were given at the beginning of the study and asked how many drinks a person had a week at present and with what frequency over the previous year. The researchers also looked at data on the number of primary cancer diagnoses (meaning it was the first time the person had been diagnosed with cancer) and deaths that occurred in the cohort over the next nine years.

"The study results suggest that minimizing alcohol intake may help individuals who already drink to lower their risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as breast, colorectal and liver cancer," Kunzmann said in a statement. "The results perhaps also suggest that [decisions about] drinking that second glass each night shouldn't be made for health reasons."

But Kunzmann noted that the participants were all older adults. That means that "we're not really reflecting what happens in younger people if they drink," he said. Also, it's difficult to account for other lifestyle factors that could have affected the results.

"Light drinkers tend to be more wealthy or lead healthier lifestyles in a number of ways than never drinkers," he said, and these factors could also influence health. But the results did take into consideration differences in diet, smoking and education among participants, Kunzmann noted.

In general, most people agree that "if you drink alcohol, drinking less reduces your risk" of health problems, including cancer," said Dr. Timothy Naimi, an alcohol epidemiologist at Boston Medical Center who was not involved with the study. But there could be other factors that "may make light drinkers 'appear' to be better off statistically, because they are socially advantaged," he told Live Science.

The researchers said that they hope their study sparks conversation about reducing the recommended alcohol intake in countries' guidelines. The U.K. guidelines, for example, recommend that both men and women should have fewer than six drinks a week (less than one drink a day), whereas the U.S. guidelines state that men shouldn't have more than two drinks a day and women no more than one, according to Kunzmann.

However, public health guidelines take into account many more factors than the study authors did, Kunzmann said. And the team cautioned that nobody really knows why light drinking might have a benefit such as cardiovascular protection or even if the results are caused by unrelated factors such as being more health-conscious.

"We're not telling people what they can or can't do or what they can or can't drink," Kunzmann said. "We're just trying to give them reliable evidence so that they can make their own informed, healthy decisions."


May 30th 2018

Binge-drink Britain: how one weekend bender can ruin your life

Just one big night out drinking can lead to pancreatitis – a painful and potentially fatal illness. Young people describe how their lives changed dramatically overnight

n her bedroom in Clacton-on-Sea, on the Essex coast, 16-year-old Somer Lawrence perfects her Tim Burton-themed Halloween costume. By the time the night is done, Lawrence will have downed a 70cl bottle of vodka. The Corpse Bride is drunk.

In the Cotswolds village of Wotton-under-Edge, 29-year-old Lee Peters manages to play the piano in his flat, despite having consumed an entire bottle of gin.

In Malia, Crete, 18-year-old Stuart Marshall celebrates the end of his lads’ holiday by drinking five half-pints of spirits.

Meanwhile, 23-year-old Rebecca Charles enjoys the sunshine with friends at the beach. They bring cider, beer and wine. By nightfall, she will have drunk 35 units of alcohol.

What all these stories have in common is what happened next. Charles woke up at 5am and was sick straight away. Marshall’s friends found him curled up in a ball. Lawrence was rushed to hospital. Peters was carried out of his house on a stretcher to a waiting ambulance after a neighbour called 999.

They had all developed pancreatitis, a disease brought on by excessive alcohol consumption that can turn one night in the pub, or a day at the beach, into a life-altering illness – it can often be fatal.

“You can get pancreatitis after a single binge,” says Dr Sarah Jarvis of the campaign group Drinkaware, although she explains it’s more common to develop it after repeated binges.

 Avicii … had chronic pancreatitis when he died. Photograph: Daniel Boczarski/Getty Images

The pancreas, a small organ behind the stomach, plays an essential role in digestion. Pancreatitis occurs when it becomes inflamed, usually as a result of too much alcohol. Individual binges can lead to flare-ups of acute pancreatitis, from which the patient can recover after a few weeks. But continued drinking can turn this into chronic pancreatitis, meaning that the pancreas can be permanently damaged, and may fail entirely. Between 70% and 80% of cases of chronic pancreatitis are caused by alcohol abuse, according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (Nice).

After the sudden death of the Swedish DJ Avicii, pancreatitis is becoming better known. He had been afflicted by the condition after abusing alcohol during exhausting world tours and, after his death, his family issued a statement saying “he could not go on any longer”. His death has forced us to pay attention to a condition we would perhaps rather ignore.

In the UK in 2016, 7,327 people died of a range of conditions that could be directly attributed to alcohol abuse. While the number of direct alcohol-related deaths have been relatively constant since 2013, they are higher than they were in 2001, when 5,701 people died as a direct result of alcohol abuse. English alcohol-related hospital admissions are at a record high – up two-thirds from a decade ago – while spending on alcohol support services has been cut.

Binge drinking – defined as drinking more than six units of alcohol in one go – is so normalised in the UK that the head of NHS England, Simon Stevens, has said hospitals are becoming the “national hangover service”. But it is easy to be in denial; evidence shows that people consistently underestimate how much they consume, particularly when drinking at home.

 Lee Peters … ‘I have gone downhill quite rapidly in the last six months.’ Photograph: Adrian Sherratt for the Guardian

Peters, Lawrence and Charles all now have chronic pancreatitis. “In the town I lived in, drinking was a massive part of the culture,” says Charles, who is now 31. “Everybody else was doing it. But I wasn’t getting up in the morning and drinking – the way people imagine alcoholics behave. I was just too much of a party girl.”

“I was stupid and young,” says Lawrence, who is now 20. Although she went to hospital several times after the incident at her Halloween party, Lawrence continued drinking, and developed chronic pancreatitis at 17. She began drinking aged 14 because it eased her anxiety and depression. “I’d turn to alcohol as a coping mechanism,” she says. “I’d always be the one at the party who’d had the most to drink. It gave me liquid confidence.”

She isn’t alone. “Wine had this lovely, numbing quality to it,” Peters says. Now aged 34, he began binge drinking after being violently assaulted at 16. “It was absolutely a response to trauma. It was the self-medication tool I used when things got stressful.”

Alcohol abuse is often linked to mental ill health. “Drug and alcohol use can lead to mental health problems, and vice versa,” says Dr Cyrus Abbasian, a consultant psychiatrist at St George’s, University of London, who specialises in mental health and substance abuse. He explains that alcohol is an anxiolytic, meaning that it has a sedative effect. “You’re self-medicating your mental health condition,” he says. “Alcohol leads to short-term relief of anxiety, but it doesn’t treat the underlying problem.” Over time, a person may develop alcohol dependency, alongside their existing, untreated mental health issues.

In a difficult relationship, and with postnatal depression after the birth of her daughter, Charles fell in with a party-loving crowd. “You think the alcohol is making things better,” she says. “But it’s actually making things worse.”

Some argue that minimum-unit pricing, implemented in Scotland earlier this month, would tackle the problem of at-home drinkers who take advantage of cheap supermarket offers. “Minimum unit pricing is an excellent idea,” Abbasian says, “because it’s an evidence-based public health intervention. With any drug, you need to limit supply and increase price to reduce use. If something is cheaply and easily available, people tend to use it.” In some instances, supermarkets had been selling alcoholic drinks more cheaply than the same quantity of water.


It’s like the worst stomach ache you’ve ever had

But would minimum-unit pricing have deterred Lawrence, who would drink a bottle of vodka because she was too young to get into bars? Possibly. “When you’re young, you can’t get into pubs, so you get a bottle of vodka for seven or eight pounds,” she says. “I don’t know why we thought it was necessary to be drinking spirits. Why were we drinking vodka at 15 or 16? It’s what everybody did, so it’s what I did.”

We all have friends who push things too far. They’re the ones with cracked phone screens and jeroboam-sized hangovers on Sunday mornings. Their anecdotes of drunken misadventures make you laugh, but also make you queasy.

Or maybe you’re that friend. “People drink so much because it’s our culture,” adds Lawrence. “The sun comes out and you go to a beer garden. It’s what we do. Everything is just an excuse to drink. Life is hard for everybody, so it’s nice to have an escape.”

But Jarvis believes if people were aware of the health consequences of binge drinking, they would drink less. “Most people have no idea that you may be doing yourself damage now that can last a lifetime.”

Here’s something to make binge-drinkers pause mid-sip: pancreatitis hurts. “It’s like the worst stomach ache you’ve ever had,” Marshall says.

“The pain is incredible,” says Charles.

When your pancreas begins to fail, the pain never goes away. After her pancreatitis turned chronic, Charles’s pancreas stopped producing the enzymes she needed to digest food, causing her to become malnourished. Her weight dropped to 29kg (63lb). She can’t work full-time or look after her 10-year-old daughter. On good days, she showers and does laundry. The bad days are dark. “I think: ‘I wish I could go to sleep and never wake up.’”

Life becomes small. Drinking buddies melt away faster than ice in a spritzer on a warm summer day. “It’s lonely,” Charles says, “when you’re surrounded by people who party the whole time and you don’t want to be a part of that any more. It’s like they don’t want to know you.”

Peters also lives alone. A kindly neighbour checks up on him. “She has dug me out of some dark places,” he says. When he goes out, his emaciated frame attracts pitying looks. “It’s difficult because I used to be a good-looking chap with a decent body that people would comment on.” But not being able to work takes the biggest toll. “I feel quite ashamed by it,” Peters, a former accountant, says. “Having to go from being fiercely independent to being dependent on the state doesn’t sit well with me.”

After we talk on the phone, Peters emails me a list of the 14 medicines he takes daily, and the 25 symptoms he experiences. (“Constant, debilitating pain … regular sepsis.”) “I can sense the grim reaper approaching,” Peters writes, before signing off with a cheerful reminder not to work too hard.

How does he bear it? Keeping his mind occupied helps. So do antidepressants. Knowing that he caused his disease, Peters says, “is difficult to cope with”. After his first bout of pancreatitis, Peters kept drinking. “It’s difficult to explain why,” he says, pointing to the trauma of his early attack as a partial explanation. He also felt that doctors were possibly exaggerating the severity of his condition, out of overcautiousness.

“It’s hard to explain what makes people unable to stop drinking,” says Abbasian. “With some patients, I have a conversation with them, and they say: ‘Yes, doctor, if I drink, I’ll have pancreatitis and I’ll die.’ But they don’t find other things as pleasurable and, because of their underlying anxiety disorder, they continue to self-medicate.”

Peters says: “I have tried very hard to come up with a rational reason as to why I was so neglectful and blase about my health, but there’s nothing I can come up with that will make sense to anybody. I’ve been very foolish. I made those decisions and I’m aware I made them. I thought: ‘Hell, sod it, I’ll think about it tomorrow.’ But tomorrow catches up with you. It caught up with me, big time.”

Chronic pancreatitis has no cure. Many people with the condition go on to develop pancreatic cancer. Surgical procedures are sometimes necessary. Charles’s gallbladder has been removed and doctors have performed a coeliac plexus block on her – an injection made using local anaesthetic to treat severe abdominal pain. Peters has advanced-stage chronic pancreatitis and takes prescription painkillers, including morphine, as well as enzyme replacement drugs, anti-sickness medication, anti-seizure medications, proton-pump inhibitors to reduce the acid in his stomach, anti-constipation tablets and meal-replacement drinks.

Despite all these interventions, about one in five people with pancreatitis will die within five years of their diagnosis. “I have a terminal prognosis,” Peters says quietly. “I have gone downhill quite rapidly in the last six months. Lots of treatments don’t work any more. I’m literally wasting away.” A few days after we speak, Peters experiences projectile vomiting, a fever and excruciating pain and is admitted to hospital with an acute flare-up of pancreatitis.

 Stuart Marshall … ‘Even with some of my friends, I think: you turn into a wanker when you’re drunk.’ Photograph: Andy Hall for the Observer

It’s easy to be judgmental about Peters’ situation. You may think: why didn’t he just stop drinking when his doctors warned him? But trauma makes people behave irrationally. Rape survivors become promiscuous, intelligent people ignore medical advice, the children of alcoholics binge-drink.

And even if you have never experienced trauma yourself, not drinking in our culture is hard. “My friends are drunk all the time and they’ll be in the club buying me drinks,” Lawrence says. “They don’t realise the severity of my illness because they don’t have to live with it.” Charles gets angry when she sees people being peer-pressured. “People will taunt someone who isn’t drinking,” she says. “It’s like: you’re a weirdo if you don’t drink.”

There are signs that Britain’s relationship with alcohol is improving, though. “We are slowly turning the tide,” Jarvis says. “Young people are drinking less.” A fifth of under-25s are teetotal, and today’s teens drink less than ever before, with only around 17% of 8-15-year-olds admitting to drinking alcohol – a change that has been attributed by some to the rise of social media. But only a sea-change will transform Britain’s binge-drinking culture. We have the second-highest levels of binge drinking in Europe, according to the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, with 7.8 million people a year admitting to bingeing on their heaviest drinking day.

“Humans are social animals, but we don’t like to be around a lot of people we’re not familiar with,” Abbasian says. “Socialising, going out on a Saturday, is anxiety-provoking. When you go to a bar or club, you drink to reduce anxiety levels so you can drink and talk to strangers. Alcohol disinhibits you.”

Forced sobriety at least helps you to see things anew, in a clear-eyed way. “I notice everything on nights out – I’m not blind to things any more,” Marshall says. “Even with some of my friends, I think: you turn into a wanker when you’re drunk.”

Find it difficult to resist alcohol or drugs? How running can help


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Abbasian says: “If alcohol were a relatively new drug introduced into our society, and not as socially acceptable, it would be a class A drug, similar to heroin or cocaine.” He urges those who regularly binge drink to seek assistance, before it’s too late. “There’s a lot of stigma and denial. A major first step is to accept you have a problem and not be ashamed getting help and treatment.”

All the people I spoke to wanted me to share their experiences. In fact, many of them reached out to me, desperate to warn others.

“My message is: be careful,” Charles says. “Just because you’re young and you only go on weekend benders, and don’t drink every day, doesn’t mean you’re invincible. Because you’re not.”

And the next time you drop a crate of sticky bottles off at a recycling bank, Peters would ask that you remember him and reconsider your drinking. “If just one person can read this and think that, it would be enough for me,” he says. “Just to make a difference to that person and their family. It would be my whole life’s work complete for me. I would be over the moon.”


Feb 4th 2018

Seven ways alcohol affects your anxiety

It's no secret that there's a relationship between alcohol and anxiety – just last year, findings published by Drinkaware showed that 34% of Brits will sometimes use drinking alcohol as a means to cope with anxiety or depression.

But with lots of us reporting to feeling the effects of "hanxiety" after a night out, the general consensus is that overall, alcohol makes anxiety worse.

With this in mind, we quizzed a couple of experts on how alcohol affects stress and anxiety, both short and long term, plus how to avoid overdoing it on a night out so you don't worsen your anxiety.

1. Initially it can make us feel far more confident – but that doesn't last

No doubt you're of the belief that having a drink makes you more confident, chatty and laid back – and it's true that having an alcoholic drink can temporarily put a hold on social anxiety. 'Alcohol acts as a sedative, so it can help you feel more at ease in the short term,' says Dr Sarah Jarvis, medical advisor at Drinkaware.

Unfortunately, that buzz is short-lived. 'When you drink alcohol it disrupts the balance of chemicals and processes in your brain,' Dr Jarvis continues. 'The relaxed feeling you experience when you have your first drink is due to the chemical changes in your brain. Alcohol depresses the part of the brain we associate with inhibition, but these effects wear off fast and the pleasant feelings fade.'

2. Your brain's serotonin levels deplete

As a depressant, alcohol lowers levels of serotonin, our 'happiness' hormone. 'There are a number of reasons that even short-term, alcohol can be harmful to our mental health,' says Chloe Brotheridge, hypnotherapist, anxiety expert and author of The Anxiety Solution.

'Drinking it reduces the amount of serotonin in the brain; serotonin is a neurotransmitter that helps you to feel calm and happy and low levels of it are associated with increased anxiety.'

3. You'll find you need to drink more and more to lose social anxiety </strong>

Unfortunately, your body will build up a tolerance to alcohol and it will become less effective in making you feel at ease. 'If you're using alcohol to help with anxiety you can get into a vicious cycle,' says Dr Jarvis. 'As your tolerance increases you need to drink more to get the same effect.

'This is because as you come off it each time, you need more alcohol to help because the anxiety comes back. In the long term this pattern of drinking may affect your mental health.'

4. And then there are anxiety hangovers

You know the feeling well if you're an anxiety sufferer; being bundled up in a cocoon of duvet feeling like something truly awful is about to happen. While you may not have a headache or any feelings of nausea, anxiety hangovers are very much a thing. So why do we get them?

'When we're experiencing symptoms such as a palpitations, dizziness, shaking or sweating during a hangover, it can trigger anxiety because these symptoms feel very similar to anxiety itself,' says Chloe. 

'It can also trigger health anxieties – worrying about whether that headache really is just a headache or whether it's something more sinister,' she adds. 'Low serotonin in the brain and dehydration will also add to that sense of feeling unwell.'

5. Drinking alcohol can worsen your short-term memory

Ever had a night after drinking where you can't remember what you did? Most of us have been there. But if you're an anxious person to begin with, this can end up making you feel a million times worse. 'Many people lose their inhibitions when they use alcohol, and behave in a way that would embarrass them under normal circumstances,' says Dr Jarvis.

'In addition, alcohol can affect short-term memory, which is why people who have been drinking often forget what they did the night before. Worrying about what you might have said or done can have a significant effect on your anxiety levels.'

6. There's a greater risk of developing alcohol dependency

'A study carried out in the USA found that 20% of those with social anxiety have an alcohol abuse problem. It can create a vicious cycle where you drink to relieve anxiety, the hangover creates more and then you drink again to try to feel better,' says Chloe.

'You might feel you can't relax and unwind after work without half a bottle of wine, or that you can't face a work party without several drinks to calm your nerves. As your tolerance increases and you find yourself needing to drink more for the same effect, you could be doing your body more harm.'

7. It disrupts your sleep pattern 

'Alcohol also disrupts your sleep pattern, which can affect your mood as well as your energy levels,' says Dr Jarvis. 'As a result, you're more susceptible to anxious feelings and can't cope with day-to-day life as easily. This can leave you feeling exhausted and irritable.'

What's more, using alcohol as a relaxant to help you get to sleep is directly harmful to your sleep cycles – a 2014 study by the University of Missouri-Columbia found that drinking alcohol as a method of getting to sleep disrupts your body's sleep homeostasis, or sleep regulator.

Tips to avoid 'overdoing it' with alcohol: 

1. Going for a period without drinking at all

'This can be a good way to "reset" your drinking. If you can stay sober for six weeks, you'll learn how to handle situations without alcohol and be forced to find alternative ways to relax and socialise.'

2. Stick to less exciting drinks such as vodka and soda water over Prosecco

'Drinking something less delicious could mean that you end up drinking less. It's an oldie, but drinking water in between each alcoholic drink will mean you're less likely to be hungover the next day.'

3. Think about how you can socialise without alcohol

'Suggest heading out for brunch instead of dinner, an exercise class or spending time in the great outdoors. It might mean spending less time with friends that love to go out and drink and more time with other friends that prefer the sober life, but it will be worth it if it significantly lowers your anxiety and means you're happier.'

Jan 21st 2018

Seven signs you might be a functioning alcoholic

In England alone, it's estimated that 595,000 people are dependent on alcohol, but only one sixth of them are accessing help. In fact, some of them manage to hold down a stable job and relationships with their family and friends, and on the surface, appear to be happy and successful - the complete opposite of what you'd typically think of when we say the word 'alcoholic'.

However, although you may still be 'functioning', maintaining an unhealthy dynamic with alcohol can still cause an incredible amount of damage, both physically and mentally. If you're concerned about how much you (or a friend) is drinking, here are 8 telltale signs that it might be time to ask for help. 

1. You're always up for a drink</h4>

Red flag to anyone who considers themselves to be the life and soul. "Someone with an alcohol problem is likely to be ever-ready to go for a drink, which can make them seem like great fun and really sociable," Andrew Misell, from the organisation Alcohol Concern explains. "This doesn't mean that they are escaping harm."

If you're always the first to take up the offer of a cocktail, or accepting that seventh top-up of prosecco when everyone else has had enough, it's time to assess whether you're saying yes because you really want to, or because you can't say no.

2. You drink every day

It might be a glass or two one day and a bottle the next, but someone who is physically dependent on alcohol will be drinking every day, says Andrew. Weekend binge drinkers, on the other hand, don't fall into this category - but if you're a stay sober 'til Saturday kind of lady, that still doesn't mean that your habits are good. "You're still giving your body a pounding and potentially storing up long-term health problems" he adds. 

3. You find it hard to stop drinking once you've started</h4>

One of the questions asked to identify a possible alcohol problem is 'how often do you find you're not able to stop drinking once you had started?' Answering 'all the time' to this alone is not a diagnosis in itself, but it can definitely indicate that your relationship with alcohol is unhealthy. Other questions include 'how often do you fail to do what's expected from you because of your drinking?', 'how often do you need a drink in the morning?', and 'how often are you unable to remember what happened the night before?'

4. You work in a profession where drinking is the norm

If you work in an industry with a strong drinking culture, temptation tends to be even more prevalent. According to Andrew, this may even help you to carry on drinking to excess - your habits can be masked by those around you, and could actually end up seeming 'average' in comparison.

Remember that their choices aren't necessarily the norm outside of that environment, and listen to your own body - if you're going too hard, chances are it's trying to tell you to slow down.

5. You joke about being an alcoholic</h4>

If we're honest with ourselves, most of us have probably made a joke about our 'alcoholic' tendancies in the past. So at what point does it become no laughing matter? 

"Joking about drinking or simply not engaging with it as an issue may be one way in which 'functioning' alcoholics avoid their harmful drinking being noticed," Andrew advises. "In the end, this means they might not get the help they need."

6. Your relationships are suffering

Unsurprisingly, drinking can be linked to a range of relationship issues. "On a very simple level, if one partner drinks much more than the other, they may start to feel they have less in common," Andrew details. "Spending time sober with someone who is often drunk can be boring and lonely. If one partner is drinking very heavily, they may be prone to forgetting to do things they've promised, and alcohol may start to take priority over their partner. Clearly that is not a recipe for a happy home."

7. People are worried about you

Boyfriends to best friends, work wives to your mum and dad; the people closest to you know you better than even you realise, and if they're expressing concerns about your blood alcohol levels, you should definitely heed their warning. "Anyone who thinks they may be drinking too much, at any time, can seek help from their GP,'" Andrew advises. "You can seek out support groups and other services in your local area."

Jan 2nd 2018

If you're looking to lose a bit of excess weight, the first thing you're usually told is to give up booze, or it's at least suggested that you dramatically limit your alcohol intake to almost nothing.

And it's good advice. Chloe Pantazi gave up alcohol for an entire year and achieved impressive results — just over a stone in weight loss, to be exact.

But, for many the idea of giving up booze (as well as drastically reducing their intake of delicious Christmasfood) is just too grim.

Why make January any worse by doing dry January?

The good news is, you actually don't have to sacrifice your favourite tipple to shed the pounds.

We asked clinical nutritionist and dietician Filip Koidis of W1 Nutritionist: How can you lose weight if you don't want to give up alcohol?

Here's his six step response:

1. Don't eat while you drink

Alcohol on its own is not that calorific — although the calories it carries have almost no nutritional value and are therefore considered “empty” — but its effects on your metabolism might be delaying your weight loss progress.

"When alcohol is ingested, our body’s immediate response is to start removing it from our blood stream, as its accumulation is toxic," Koidis said. "Therefore, if alcohol is co-ingested with food, our body will first focus on removing all alcohol and then process the food, a procedure that slows down our metabolism and interferes with our weight loss goals."

In order to deal with this, he suggests eating 2 to 2.5 hours before a night out, and avoiding eating while drinking, "therefore allowing your liver to focus on processing the alcohol and not burdening it with food."

"You are more likely to go for high-calorie and processed foods when you’ve had a few drinks and forget all about your healthy eating principles, so best to plan ahead and have your dinner early"

2. Keep it simple

The empty calories in alcohol can easily quadruple with the addition of fizzy drinks or the sugar added to cocktails/found in processed fruit juices.

Koidis says that instead of mixing your alcohol with the above, you should have it on the rocks with freshly squeezed juice or fresh pieces of fruit. "This way you are likely to have better control of how much alcohol you consume and significantly reduce your calorie intake for the night," he said.

3. Party hard, but work out harder

"Following a healthy lifestyle and embarking upon a weight loss journey is not about 'cutting things out' but about finding the right balance between your health goals and social life," Koidis said.

If you have a special occasion or work drinks, he says this is totally fine, but don't let this stop you from going to the gym or going for a run the next day.

"Studies have shown that exercise improves body composition and liver health of alcohol consumers, so power through your hangover and go sweat it out."

4. Make a few simple trade-offs

Alcohol is just one factor to consider when trying to achieve your health and fitness goals.

Koidis advises exercising your willpower on simple things now and again, "whether it's trading off your daily glass of wine at dinner because you’re trying to improve your sleep (which will help you lose weight), or choosing to drink slower and more mindfully instead of drinking your friends under the table because you’re trying to cut back on your calorie intake, or even choosing to drink at two of the four events you have this week because you know you usually end up overdoing it at the buffet when you’re a little bit tipsy."

5. Ask yourself — are you really a 'moderate drinker?'

Koidis says it's important to understand your drinking habits in order to hit your goals.

"Most drinkers consume a lot more alcohol than they think they do. So it would be good to observe your drinking habits in order to gain a better understanding of how much you’re drinking and how to tailor that on your weight loss goals," he said.

6. Don’t cut alcohol completely at first

Finally Koidis points out that his clients who have begun following a healthy regime usually start to reduce their intake gradually anyway.

"From my own experience at my clinic, for many of my clients, once they have been on a healthy pattern for some time they are in better sync with their body and realise alcohol’s side effects better — mood, cravings, poor performance at the gym, etc. — so wanting to cut back or cut it out completely comes naturally, which is the best way to go about it."

Dec 15th 2017

Health experts have warned of the dangers of under age drinking after a study found that one in six parents allow their children to drink alcohol at the age of 14.

Well-educated parents of white children were most likely to allow their children to drink at 14, the research by the UCL Institute of Education and Pennsylvania State University in the US found.

Parents who abstained from alcohol tended not to allow their children to drink, but among those who did drink, those fathers and mothers who drank heavily were no more likely to let their children drink alcohol than light or moderate drinkers.

Current guidelines recommend that an alcohol-free childhood is best, with children not drinking any alcohol before the age of 15.

As wine is often shared at the dinner table during the festive season, the study’s authors were keen to point out that while having better educated parents is generally a protective factor for children, previous research has shown that those who start drinking early are more likely to fail at school, have behaviour issues, as well as alcohol and substance problems in adulthood.

After analysing data on more than 10,000 children born in the UK at the turn of the new century, they found that 17% of UK parents have let their children drink alcohol by the age of 14.

Parents of white children who were employed, had more educational qualifications, and who drank alcohol themselves, were more likely to allow their adolescent children to drink than unemployed parents, those with fewer educational qualifications, and ethnic minority parents.

Professor Jennifer Maggs, who led the study, said: “Parents of socially advantaged children may believe that allowing children to drink will teach them responsible use or may in fact inoculate them against dangerous drinking.

“However, there is little research to support these ideas.”

Katherine Brown, chief executive of the Institute of Alcohol Studies, said: “This is important guidance because alcohol can harm children given their bodies and brains are not yet fully developed.

“It is worrying to see that this advice may not be getting across to parents, who are trying to do their best to teach their children about alcohol.”

Dec 11th 2017

Experts routinely spout that a glass of red wine each night is good for the heart. But what about seven glasses? And what if they’re spread over the course of two days? Is it still just as detrimental to your health? A new study published in the journal Addictive Behaviors outlines eight drinking patterns found in 177 heavy alcohol users that, if left unchecked, could quickly slide into full-blown alcoholism.

1. 3-4 Drinks, 2-3 Times per Week (Weekend)

Though the majority of the 19 people in this category had no alcohol-related problems, just over half suffered from a personality disorder of some type. Only one of the subjects said she was willing to change her behavior. Often this pattern of drinking precedes heavier drinking in varying contexts. As most of the group’s drinking took place on the weekend, it may have been largely social. A sign that social drinking may be turning into a coping mechanism is the transition to more regular drinking alone.

2. 3-4 Drinks, 2 Times per Week (Weekend-ish)

Most of the people in this group were young, white, and college-educated. They’re likely to be on the cusp of their thirties, if they’re even over the hump of 25. Drinking is still largely socially driven, and engaging in a period of intense drinking may not necessarily indicate a problem. However, as most of the 25 subjects were unwilling to change, the risk of dependence may grow with time.

3. 4-5 Drinks, 1-2 Times per Week (Weekends)

The risk of problem-drinking in these 28 people, most of whom were unmarried women, is decidedly reduced — but only to a point, as one extra drink led to 42 percent more feelings of unhappiness with drinking behavior. What was once celebratory and social in group 1 now seems more like disillusionment.

4. 4-5 Drinks, 1-2 Times per Week (Anytime)

By the CDC’s measure, groups 1-4 are the only ones that could fall outside binge drinking, namely for men. What’s more, the largest group of the study, at 39 participants, this cohort was the most likely to have an alcoholic father. Researchers speculated this fact may have compelled people to limit their drinking to just the one or two times a week. Unlike the previous group, however, these subjects didn’t limit their drinking to the weekends.

5. 5-6 Drinks, 3-4 Times per Week (Weekend-ish)

Though heavy users through and through, this group was the most hopeful of the eight. They were most likely to be taking meaningful steps toward breaking the habit — 57 percent had tried treatment — and half were in the highest “action” stage when it came to enacting change. Researchers found this pattern as the greatest tipping point for problem-drinking.

6. 7 Drinks, 4 Times per Week (Anytime)

This group contained 20 people, and roughly two-thirds of them identified as habitual users. Without any intervening efforts, in other words, their behaviour would not stop — regardless of the fact that most of the people in the group said they were fully willing to change. None of these 20 people was married, and most (70 percent) were older white men.

7. 9-10 Drinks, 3-4 Times per Week (On/Off)

At nearly a dozen drinks in one sitting, repeated several times throughout the week, this group may seem like the most problematic. But the researchers at least partially defended the behavior, because the group was also the most ready to change. In spite of their heavy drug use, low employment rate (less than a third), greatest alcohol dependency, and the highest rate of alcohol-related problems, the group could at least acknowledge it needed a change.

8. 6-7 Drinks, 4 Times per Week (Throughout)

These subjects were essentially group 5, but past the tipping point. Characteristically unmarried older men, the group had a lifelong dependence on alcohol along with low employment rates, a bevy of alcohol-related problems, and worst of all, had no desire to change. They were the subjects that could benefit the most from professional help.

Source: Harrington M, Velicer W, Ramsey S. Typology of alcohol users based on longitudinal patterns of drinking. Addictive Behaviors. 2014.

June 12th 2017

Would you believe us if we told you some people can get drunk without ever taking a sip of alcohol? While this might sound enviable (no carbs, no empty calories, no price tag), that’s far from the case for those who suffer from a rare condition called auto-brewery syndrome.

Also known by its more clinical name, gut fermentation syndrome, it occurs when there’s an overgrowth of candida, the yeast that most commonly causes yeast infections. Except instead of overgrowing in the mouth or genitals, it multiplies out of control in your gut.

'When candida metabolizes sugars it produces byproducts and chemical derivatives of alcohol. When those get into your circulatory system, it can give you that feeling of being hungover or drunk,' says Kiran Krishnan, a microbiologist in Florida.

Sometimes, people with the condition assume they’re just sick when they experience symptoms like fogginess, lightheadedness, and overall lethargy, but if they had their blood tested it would actually show a slight elevation in blood alcohol content (BAC) depending on what type of alcohol derivative their body produced, says Krishnan.

'It’s just like what happens when you drink, except it’s chronic,' he says. 'Drinking causes inflammation in the body and puts stress on the liver, and so does this. It’s basically like these microbes in your body are drinking and having a party and you’re paying the price for it.'

If you’re still not sold, here’s more proof: in 2016, an upstate New York woman blew more than four times the legal limit, despite insisting she hadn’t had a drink in hours; turns out, she was telling the truth, and a judge later dismissed the charges after viewing evidence that she (unbeknownst to her) had auto-brewery syndrome.

And, an article in the journal Medicine, Science, and the Law, explored the phenomenon and reported that in people with the condition, an abnormally high alcohol concentration appeared to have been produced after they’d eaten carbohydrate-rich foods. 'When the body has sugars or simple carbohydrates in it, as well as these microbes, they’ll metabolize it and produce these byproducts, which cause the systemic effects,' says Krishnan.

Candida overgrowth is what Krishnan calls an 'opportunistic grower,' which means if you make your body an attractive incubator, it’ll take advantage of that and leave you feeling hungover all the time, minus the social fun. (These are the signs you might be drinking too much alcohol.) The good news is, it’s not a strong fighter, so there are simple steps you can take to keep it under control. 'Limit stress, eat a healthy diet, and take a probiotic,' he says. 'Look for a probiotic that says it survives the gastric system, like Probiogen, because this means it’s guaranteed to get into your intestines alive, not a given with all probiotics.'

March 29th 2017

At the age of 13, I discovered alcohol and my life began. A glass of Baileys on Christmas Eve soon became a bottle. I chatted, I sang and I danced around the Christmas tree. A childhood of being the shy retiring wallflower and feeling like I didn't belong was over. I'd found life's magic elixir. I was so impressed by it, I even gave it to the dog.

By 16, I was sneaking into nightclubs, using friends' innocent sleepovers as an excuse to stay out all night. We frequented the local rock club, mostly because of its relaxed policy towards allowing our fake student IDs to pass as real. I'd order ten shots of 50p vodka in a pint glass then hide in the toilets to drink until my self-hatred disappeared or I passed out, whichever came first. It was the blueprint of my social life. I didn't need to lose weight, dress differently or sort my skin out. Alcohol offered almost instant self-acceptance, in liquid form.

By the time I turned 20, the problematic drinking that had plagued my teenage years had descended into something else - hopeless alcoholism.

To numb the pain

"Why do you drink so much?" my friend innocently asked, whilst I lounged at the end of her bed on a Wednesday afternoon.

"To numb the pain of having to be alive," I answered nonchalantly, opening my third bottle of wine.

At the age of 23, waking up to a splash of orange juice in my vodka was a regular occurrence.

"Drink through it," I would tell myself, thinking that I'd deal with the awaiting hangover another day. If I hadn't been at some crazy party, where the alcohol freely flowed, I'd be at home, drinking until the early hours and drowning away my sorrows.

I hated being sober. It was like watching television in black and white. As soon as the first drop of alcohol passed my lips, my world was in colour again. And I would do everything in my power to ensure I never saw life without my alcohol-blurred lenses.

One drop of that intoxicating liquid and life's little lubricator would work its magic, numbing the pain of existence and making the world a much better and brighter place.

In my early twenties, cold sweats and shaking were a daily occurrence. I went through alcohol withdrawal as I sat at the desk of my serious job in a serious company, too much of a nervous wreck to answer the phone, deleting emails I couldn't cope with and drinking on my own at lunchtime so I could get through the day.

Drinking and dying

But the effects of this all day, every day binge were not just limited to the physical. As awful as the vomiting, the accelerated heartbeat and the shakes were, it was the mental effects that catapulted me into hell and kept me there. Suicidal thoughts constantly permeated my brain; all I thought about was drinking and dying.

At the age of 25, alcohol nearly ended my life. I woke up and found myself in rehab with the hangover from hell, being medically withdrawn from alcohol and told that it would be in my interests never to drink a drop ever again.

I'm now 30, and have been sober for the last five years. After years of alcoholic drinking and five years of sobering up, here's what I've learnt:

1. Professionals won't necessarily understand

At 24, I knew I needed help, and quickly. I booked an appointment to see my GP and then managed to be too hungover to attend. Finally, weeks of hangovers, excuses, withdrawal and all round hell later, I found myself sitting opposite him, confessing the amount of units I was consuming just to get through the day. In the three days before my appointment, I'd religiously noted every sip I took, and there written in bright red marker pen on his desk was the result: 140 units in three days or to put it plainly, alcohol to wake up, alcohol to get through the day and alcohol to go to sleep.

He didn't seem worried. "Do you have a house? A job? Parents? Friends?" he asked.

"Yes," was my response, although only just.

"Then what's your problem?" he asked, sending me home with a prescription for the antidepressant citalopram and instructions to write a list of the positives in my life.

I left the surgery, and went straight to the off licence. Apparently, alcoholism was not a problem faced by women in their twenties.

I don't really remember how many times I returned to my GP, in various states of intoxication, withdrawal and anguish. But what I do remember is the frustration I felt every time he made it clear that there were just no resources in my area to help a girl like me, and I was on my own.

If you experience a professional who seems to understand the nature of addiction in whatever form it takes, count your blessings.

2. Rehab might get you sober, it won't keep you sober

I was lucky enough to stumble through the doors of the only rehabilitation centre in the UK who had the resources to help a suicidal, penniless young alcoholic on the way to recovery.

Rehab was no walk in the park. There was endless tea and toast, but there were also tears and tantrums as I realised that everything about my life was going to have to change.

Six weeks later, I left, having felt for the first time in my life that I was exactly where I needed to be.

Rehab got me sober, but it didn't keep me sober. Cocooned from reality for six weeks, I was ill prepared for the harsh outside world. Without putting any proper support in place to manage life outside rehab walls, I relapsed, almost immediately.

3. The pub will lose its allure

I spent my first months of not drinking gazing through the windows of the pub. My head was in recovery, my heart was still at the pub.

I loved the smell of alcohol, sticky floors and cigarettes. I associated it with a sense of camaraderie. That sickly sweet smell meant everything was going to be ok.

I had to go through a period of mourning my relationship with alcohol, as well as the pubs, the bars, the clubs, the parties, and the life that I thought alcohol had given me.

4. Friends > drinking acquaintances

Most of my friends disappeared the day I went into rehab; a few hung around long enough to attempt going out for a sober meal with me. The friends, who I had so much in common with after the sixth bottle of wine at a party, were silent and awkward over a jug of tap water. I never heard from most of them again.

I learnt what it meant to meet friends for coffee and a chat, not for drinks at the pub.

5. Parties aren't what they used to be

I thought I was a party girl until I got sober and realised the only thing attracting me to the party was the presence of alcohol.

At parties, I hid alcohol everywhere. I never wanted it to run out. I'd hide it in the washing machine, under the stairs and in the shed, so if the time came when the booze was running out and the off licence was closed, I always had a backup.

Today I like some parties. But mostly I find socialising exhausting and the more booze that's consumed, the more I want to go home. Not because I worry about drinking, but because somewhere around the third glass of wine, the noise levels go up, stories are repeated and it all becomes very tiresome.

I'd never observed drunk people before I got sober. I was always too drunk to notice anyone else's behaviour.

6. People won't always understand

"Can't you just have one?" I'm often asked.

"No," I laugh. "Unless you want to pay for my next stint in rehab."

That usually silences anyone particularly persistent in getting me to drink and more importantly, prevents any sneaky shots of vodka finding their way into my glass.

7. I suddenly had all the time in the world and didn't know what to do with it

My entire life revolved around alcohol. It wasn't just drinking it that took up the time. Try standing in supermarkets working out the most effective alcoholic drink based on cost vs. alcohol percentage. Or managing the debilitating effects of not just a hideous hangover, but full on alcohol withdrawals. Or working out how to replace all the alcohol you've stolen from your flatmate for the fourth time in a week. All of this whilst trying to show up for work, pay the bills, and maintain the facade that everything is just fine.

Without alcohol, I had an awful lot of time on my hands. I slept a lot and then, as I began to feel better, discovered a whole world of non-alcohol related activities that had been a mystery to me before.

Who knew that kickboxing on a Saturday morning could be so much fun? Who knew Saturday morning was even a thing?

8. There's help out there; make the most of it

Getting sober isn't easy. It's the most difficult thing I've ever done.

At 24, I hit what I thought was rock bottom. An attempt at being sober without any support lasted a painful fortnight and ended in a teary tantrum when nobody would buy me a bottle of wine. Without that wine, I couldn't see the purpose of being alive for the next thirty minutes, never mind for the rest of my life.

So I went to AA. I was too nervous to walk through the door sober so I'd take along vodka in a Starbucks cup, hoping no one could smell the booze on my breath.

I hated the people, the dingy church halls, the language of recovery, the plastic chairs, the terrible coffee. I had every excuse, every reason, every validation for not doing it.

Yet the day came when one day I woke up and it was ok not to drink. Then the next day it was ok too. Soon a year had past, then two, three, four and now five.

Over the years I've argued with the AA programme, left, come back and left once again. But there's one thing I can't argue with – I would never have got sober without the support of AA.

9. Alcohol is the tip of the iceberg

As several years passed by, it wasn't so much not drinking that was the problem; it was the underlying myriad of issues and self-hatred that had led to alcohol being the solution to begin with. In order for me to stay sober I had to deal with disordered eating, dysfunctional relationship patterns, anxiety and underlying depression.

I had to learn how to deal with life without a bottle of vodka to whitewash my feelings or shortcut through pain.

Year one was tough. Year two was boring. Year three was an adventure. Year four and five were just life as life. Alcohol became irrelevant. It wasn't even on my radar; neither the problem, nor the solution.

At the age of 30, I am now five years sober. That's five years without a drink, a blackout or a hangover.

Dec 22nd 2016 A Christmas message

Sara Stewart, 54, began drinking to an unhealthy level at the age of 16. Now ten years sober, she shares her experiences with us...

There was no 'tipping point' as such…

"…Once I had discovered that alcohol made me feel better or gave me the impression that my problems had gone away, it became my go-to solution for everything. I drank to self-medicate, but I do have alcoholics on both sides of my family and, combined with my addictive personality, I think I was an alcoholic waiting to happen.

"Alcoholics will always find an excuse as to why they drink – maybe they came from a broken home, or their marriage is in a mess or their life is very stressful. It's easy to blame everything else except you for your drinking problem. The bottom line is that alcohol only exacerbates people's problems and you find yourself in a downward spiral."

Life as an alcoholic

"To begin with, during my teens, twenties and into my early thirties, I was more of a binge drinker. I would go out and get completely wasted every few months, particularly if I had a problem I was dealing with at that time. I didn't know when to call it a night or when I had had enough to drink. I would put myself in dangerous situations, do stupid things and inevitably have to apologise to people the next day for having said or done something outrageous.

"As my marriage started to disintegrate in my mid-thirties – whilst I was also trying to cope with running a business and looking after three small children – my drinking became more regular. I used to drink wine or spirits, but as my binges got closer together, I would drink anything I could get my hands on. It's at this stage you start making sure that you have a regular supply of alcohol to hand and it begins to rule your life.

"From occasional binges, I then started drinking excessively most weekends. As things got worse, I drank in the evenings during the week too – not a glass of wine or two, but to the point where I would pass out. It got to the stage where, in the last few weeks of my drinking career, I would have a drink as early as mid morning."

Christmas as an alcoholic</h3>

"Christmas Day was often spent nursing a hangover as I had usually over-indulged the night before. It is a great time of year for alcoholics because it gives you the perfect excuse to drink excessively without it being too noticeable or unacceptable.

"However, I didn't just drink when socialising. I would happily stay up by myself, wrapping presents until 3am and knocking back my drink of choice. And I would drink throughout Christmas Day. I remember my very last Christmas Day before I got help: I drank so much that I didn't even get around to cooking Christmas dinner."

Going sober

"Ending up in A&E was my personal rock bottom. I suddenly realised that this wasn't normal behaviour for a middle-aged woman with kids. Up to that point, I had been in denial about how serious my drinking had become. It's a favourite trick of alcoholics to avoid the truth and so justify their excessive drinking.

"I went into rehab for a time and then attended for several years. Discovering what life could be like without alcohol was the only incentive I needed. I found a lot of the anger and jealousies that I had clung onto as an alcoholic just disappeared. I started to like people again and notice how beautiful the world we live in can be. I was so scared of picking up a drink I never had a relapse – but I am also wary of never taking my sobriety for granted. I would never even experiment with alcohol to see if I was OK with it now. It's just not worth it.

"I have just released a book – – in which I draw on my personal experiences through the character of Alice, who is herself an alcoholic. Although, I have to say, the book is fictional and my life was never quite as dramatic as hers! Part of the process of recovery from alcoholism is to remind yourself of all the terrible things you did under the influence. It's a way of keeping on the straight and narrow, and this is touched upon in the book."

Staying sober at Christmas

"It might sound unthinkable to somebody who loves a good party at Christmas time, but staying sober for the festive season doesn't bother me. I am lucky enough not to want to drink alcohol anymore – I find that even the smell of it turns my stomach. What has proved more of a problem is avoiding all the lovely seasonal foods that seem to be steeped in alcohol – Christmas cake, Christmas pudding, mince pies, trifle and so on. It seems that alcohol is a key ingredient of food at Christmas time.

"I am so committed to my sobriety I won't eat anything that even has a flavour akin to alcohol such as rum and raisin ice cream. Sometimes, I have dreams in which I have got drunk and they are ten times worse than the most terrible of nightmares. I always wake up in a cold sweat and am so relieved to find out it was just a dream.

"Christmas is now a wonderful time and I love spending it with my family. In the past, I would have had several sherries whilst decorating the Christmas tree and got so drunk the tree wouldn't have ever got finished. These days I have a much richer experience because I always have a clear head. There are so many good alternatives to alcohol out there at the moment, but my personal favourite is a Virgin Mojito!"

A Christmas message for recovering alcoholics

"Everyone is so different in the way they feel about their sobriety in the early days. Personally, I think if it's better in the beginning to avoid any celebrations where there is going to be alcohol. I avoided office Christmas dos for the first couple of years and my family didn't drink alcohol around me to begin with.

"Keep alcohol out of the house and check the ingredients on all Festive foods. In the early days, even something like the flavour of brandy in brandy butter could be enough to get an alcoholic back on the booze. If you cannot avoid situations where alcohol will be served, just be honest. Turn a drink down by telling people you're a recovering alcoholic. Most people are full of admiration and will stop trying to get you to have 'just a small one'.

"I have learnt that my sobriety in the most important thing in my life. It comes before everything because, without it, you stand to lose everything."

Sara's first novel, Whilst I Was Out, is out now and available to purchase .

If you are worried about your drinking habits, or the drinking habits of a family member, talk to your GP.


A new study suggests that alcohol is a direct cause of cancer in several areas of the body.

The study, published Thursday in the scientific journal Addiction, consists of a major review of 10 years’ worth of studies from several organizations, including the World Cancer Research Fund, the American Institute for Cancer Research and the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

And its conclusions are dire. 

Nearly 6 percent of cancer deaths worldwide can be linked to alcohol, including in people who drink light to moderate amounts of alcohol, the study concludes. “From a public health perspective, alcohol is estimated to have caused approximately half a million deaths from cancer in 2012,” wrote study author Jennie Connor, a professor of epidemiology at the University of Otago in New Zealand.

The study determined that there is a strong link between alcohol consumption and cancer in specific areas of the body, such as the liver, colon, esophagus and female breast. There are also causal contributions in other areas such as the prostate, pancreas and skin. 

How alcohol causes cancer is not deeply understood, according to the study, but it is thought to depend on the “target organ.” For example, cancers of the throat, mouth and liver can be largely attributed to a carcinogenic compound called acetaldehyde. Salivary acetaldehyde levels have been found to reach high levels when drinking.

Breast tissue is another area that seems to be particularly susceptible to alcohol.

Connor noted the United Kingdom’s Million Women Cohort study, which found that women who drank 70 to 140 grams of alcohol per week experienced a 13 percent increase in breast cancer and a 5 percent increase in total cancer compared to those who drank less than 20 grams per week.

Unfortunately, the amount you drink might not matter all that much. While heavy drinkers have a higher risk of liver, colon and laryngeal cancer than light drinkers, all drinkers have the same risk of mouth, esophagus, breast and pharynx cancer.

Connor also acknowledges that some of the studies she reviewed show that those who drink light to moderate of alcohol have a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease than abstainers.

But many epidemiologists agree that research confirms alcohol actually causes cancer, Connor wrote, while the relationship between drinking and heart disease is not as conclusive.

For example, other lifestyle factors beyond alcohol consumption ― such as a person’s healthy behavior and demographic conditions ― typically put abstainers at a higher risk than those who moderately drink. Connor cites a 2005 study that showed 27 out of 30 risk factors for cardiovascular disease were more prevalent in abstainers than moderate drinkers. 

“Promotion of health benefits from drinking at moderate levels is seen increasingly as disingenuous or irrelevant in comparison to the increase in risk of a range of cancers,” she wrote in the study.  


As a solution to alcohol-attributed cancer, Connor suggests everyone should reduce their alcohol consumption, not just heavy drinkers. 

“Population-wide reduction in alcohol consumption will have an important effect on the incidence of [cancer], while targeting the heaviest drinkers alone has limited potential,” she wrote in the study. 

However, most people today are hesitant to adapt to the facts. While the majority of the population readily accepts that smoking causes lung cancer, “alcohol’s causal role is perceived to be more complex than tobacco’s,” 


Most people who have alcohol-related health problems aren’t alcoholics. They're simply people who have regularly been drinking more than the recommended levels for some years.

Regularly drinking more than the recommended daily limits risks damaging your health. There's no guaranteed safe level of drinking, but if you drink less than the recommended daily limits, the risks of harming your health are low. And it's certainly not only people who get drunk or binge drink who are at risk. Most people who regularly drink more than the NHS recommends don't see any harmful effects at first. Alcohol’s hidden harms usually only emerge after a number of years. And by then, serious health problems can have developed. Liver problems, reduced fertility, high blood pressure, increased risk of various cancers and heart attack are some of the numerous harmful effects of regularly drinking more than the recommended levels. The effects of alcohol on your health will depend on how much you drink. The more you drink, the greater the health risks. Drinkers can be divided into three risk categories:  lower-risk drinkers  increasing-risk drinkers higher-risk drinkers Read about alcohol units to work out how much alcohol there is in your drinks.

Lower-risk drinkers Lower-risk drinking means that you have a low risk of causing yourself future harm. However, drinking consistently within these limits is called "lower-risk" rather than "safe" because drinking alcohol is never completely safe. To be a lower-risk drinker, the NHS recommends that: Men should not regularly drink more than 3-4 units a day. Women should not regularly drink more than 2-3 units a day. "Regularly" means drinking this amount every day or most days of the week. Even drinking less than this is not advisable in some circumstances. Drinking any alcohol can still be too much if you’re going to drive, operate machinery, swim or do strenuous physical activity. Pregnant women or women trying to conceive should avoid alcohol altogether. When you drink, alcohol reaches your baby through the placenta. Too much exposure to alcohol can seriously affect your baby's development. If you're pregnant and choose to drink, do not drink more than 1-2 units of alcohol once or twice a week, and do not get drunk. This will minimise the risk to the baby. Read more on pregnancy and alcohol. People who drink should aim to be in the lower-risk category to minimise the health risks.

Increasing-risk drinkers Drinking at this level increases the risk of damaging your health. Alcohol affects all parts and systems of the body, and it can play a role in numerous medical conditions. Increasing-risk drinking is: regularly drinking more than 3-4 units a day if you're a man regularly drinking more than 2-3 units a day if you're a woman  If you're drinking at around these levels, your risk of developing a serious illness is higher than non-drinkers: Men are 1.8 to 2.5 times as likely to get cancer of the mouth, neck and throat, and women are 1.2 to 1.7 times as likely.  Women are 1.2 times as likely to get breast cancer. Men are twice as likely to develop liver cirrhosis, and women are 1.7 times as likely. Men are 1.8 times as likely to develop high blood pressure, and women are 1.3 times as likely. If you're an increasing-risk drinker and you drink substantially more than the lower-risk limits, your risks will be even higher than those above. At these levels of drinking, you may already have alcohol-related problems, such as fatigue or depression, weight gain, poor sleep and sexual problems. Whatever your age or sex, you’re probably in worse physical shape than you would be otherwise. Also, you could easily have higher blood pressure due to your drinking. Some people argue a lot when they drink, which can negatively affect their relationships with family and friends.

Higher-risk drinkers

If you’re in this group, you have an even higher risk of damaging your health compared with increasing-risk drinkers.

Higher-risk drinking is:

  • regularly drinking more than 8 units a day or 50 units a week if you're a man
  • regularly drinking more than 6 units a day or 35 units a week if you're a woman 

Again, alcohol affects the whole body and can play a role in numerous medical conditions. You have a much higher risk of developing alcohol-related health problems. Your body has probably suffered some damage already, even if you’re not yet aware of it.

Compared to non-drinkers, if you regularly drink above higher-risk levels: 

  • You could be 3-5 times more likely to get cancer of the mouth, neck and throat.
  • You could be 3-10 times more likely to develop liver cirrhosis.
  • Men could have four times the risk of having high blood pressure, and women are at least twice as likely to develop it.
  • You could be twice as likely to have an irregular heartbeat.
  • Women are around 1.5 times as likely to get breast cancer.

The more you drink above the higher-risk threshold, the greater the risks. So some of the health risks can be even higher than those above. You’re likely to have the same problems as increasing-risk drinkers: feeling tired or depressed, or gaining extra weight.

You may be sleeping poorly or having sexual problems. And, like increasing-risk drinkers but possibly more so, you’re likely to be in worse physical shape than you would be otherwise, whatever your age or sex. You could also have high blood pressure.

At these levels, your drinking may make you argumentative, which might damage your relationships with family and friends.

drinking too much is bad for you

Even moderate beer consumption has the potential to cause serious health conditions.

Many people do not realize that what they consider to be harmless social drinking is causing potentially serious damage to their bodies. All alcoholic beverages can be harmful if used in excess, and excess does not necessarily equal intoxication, as some people may be able to drink several drinks before they feel intoxicated. Immediate effects of drinking in excess may include intoxication, motor vehicle accidents and poor judgment. However, most men can safely drink up to 2 alcoholic beverages daily, and most women can drink up to 1 per day, according to federal dietary guidelines.

Liver Disease

Alcohol-related liver disease can range from mild to potentially fatal. Initially, the liver may accumulate excessive amounts of fat cells, known as fatty liver. If a person decreases his alcohol intake, this condition may resolve. If not, inflammation of the liver, or alcoholic hepatitis, can result. The next stage may be permanent scarring of the liver, or cirrhosis. An estimated 10 to 15 percent of those who drink more than 50 g of alcohol daily for longer than 10 years develop cirrhosis; this amount is equivalent to 4 oz of 100-proof whiskey, 48 oz of beer, or 15 oz of wine. While cirrhosis has many causes, between 1 percent and 8 percent of those with stable cirrhosis are believed to develop liver cancer every year.

Inflamed Pancreas

The pain of pancreatitis can be so severe that it requires hospitalization and intravenous pain medications. Photo Credit Thomas Northcut/Digital Vision/Getty Images

Excessive alcohol use may cause inflammation of the pancreas, called pancreatitis, which can cause severe pain in the stomach region. In the United States, an estimated 30 percent of new cases of pancreatitis -- acute pancreatitis -- are due to alcohol. The pain of pancreatitis can be so severe that it requires hospitalization and intravenous pain medications. Pancreatitis has the potential to be fatal in 2 to 6 percent of people. In addition, with recurrent episodes of pancreatitis, the symptoms might not resolve completely, and the pancreatitis can become permanent, leading to daily pain, even after alcohol consumption stops.

Cardiovascular Disease

Alcohol abuse can raise the blood pressure and make the heart so weak that it eventually fails. Photo Credit Jochen Sand/Digital Vision/Getty Images

While moderate alcohol consumption may have a beneficial effect on the heart, excessive use can be very harmful. Alcohol abuse can raise the blood pressure and make the heart so weak that it eventually fails. These effects are not just seen in older adults. Even vibrant, young adults may develop severe heart failure as a result of drinking excessively. Fortunately, in many people, giving up alcohol or cutting back significantly may result in reversal of the high blood pressure and heart failure. Drinking at least 4 drinks daily can also increase the risk of stroke. Binge drinkers, as well as those who drink heavily regularly, have an increased risk of a potentially serious heart rhythm called atrial fibrillation.


Excessive alcohol consumption is strongly linked to certain forms of cancer in both men and women, such as cancer of the liver, mouth, esophagus, throat and larynx, or voice box. Breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women, is also associated with alcohol intake. While many cancers can be cured if caught early enough, cancer is often not diagnosed until it is too advanced to be cured.

Other Side Effects

Alcohol can be toxic to virtually every part of the body when ingested in excess. It can cause permanent brain damage as well as nerve damage. Alcohol can even cross the placenta in pregnant women and lead to congenital anomalies. Therefore, women should not drink during pregnancy, as alcohol consumption may lead to a potentially devastating effect on the fetus, called fetal alcohol syndrome, a common cause of mental retardation. Other potential side effects of alcohol include common problems such as inflammation of the stomach lining, weight gain, poor job performance and a negative impact on family life.

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