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bizarre things. You wouldn't believe

Jan 16th 2018

I'm sure he thinks he is beautifull.

The wonderfull Sea Dragon

Jan 15th 2018

Truly invisable catapillar

Cone shell these are deadly do not touch.

Austrailian Rove Bettle

Collard Lizard

Aug 30th 2017

There are some weird and wonderful things out there, just keep looking and do not forget your camera

Sept 22nd 2017

Who are the insect eaters

A 2013 UN food and culture Organisation report reminds us that there are 1900 edible insect species out there that some 2 billion earthlings already regularly consume: Beatles, butterflies, moths, bees, wasps, ants, grasshoppers, crickets and locusts. insects are abundantly available and rich in low-fat protein, fibre and minerals.

Tip for first timers: open your mind, then your mouth.

Who eats insects? Or a better question is, who does not eat insects? And the answer is humans that have not tried this delicacy and polar Bears, and the Bears certainly would if there were any available in their own habitat.

In Asian countries, insects are considered a delicacy and many foreign visitors have tried and enjoyed these unique tastes, and it is not only the taste, the insects are highly nutritious and can if desired make a substantial meal.

It is very easy to try out the wide range of edible insects that are available, and they are all reasonably priced, beautifully packed and readily obtainable from a very popular supplier.

biotics is another reason. Gut health is receiving more attention lately and probiotics have become a big nutritional supplement. Cricket powder is packed with prebiotics which are nutrients for probiotics. Therefore, cricket flour helps support strong gut health.

If Omega 3, Iron, Calcium and B12 are important to you, here is another reason. Not only are many vitamins and minerals available from insects, they are very digestible as well.

If you’re on the Paleo Diet, you can’t get more paleo than this.

But, there are also environmental and social issues. Many current agriculture methods are not sustainable and are a major cause of pollution and therefore, global warming. Insects can be grown using less water and land than conventional livestock. Way less. They can be grown inside or out and they can be farmed vertically by industry or the family farm. This is important. The availability of edible insects is universal, it’s worldwide. Edible insects can be grown at home by just about anyone.

The mission of Entosense, Inc. is to bring edible insects into the diets of North Americans for their own benefit and that of the world. If edible insects become a trend here, it will help spread throughout the world. It’s true that much of the world already eat insects but it is losing popularity instead of gaining. Meat, especially beef, is gaining popularity at a time when we need to reduce meat consumption, not increase it. Edible insects are one sustainable answer.

And, a damn good one. Insects offer a wide variety of new flavors and textures for adventurous chefs and home cooks. There are more insects than any other animal group. Their tastes and texture vary widely. Embrace this new culinary experience. It will be good for you and good for the planet.

Are you planning a party? Why not surprise your guests by having some unusual items on the menu, there are various insect preparations that come in a powdered form that can be added surreptitiously to some of your more normal dishes, you can prepare for this by doing a little shopping here

We get a lot of comments about the price of edible insects.

It’s true, edible insects are expensive right now. But, that will change due to the law of supply and demand. Supply is low and demand is growing. Market forces will bring the price down as suppliers gear up for higher demand.

So, prices are high. You’re paying for a new experience and supporting a new industry. As a first adopter and market influencer, your experience is important and your story can help the industry grow.

Edible insects have so much going for them. Yet, unwarranted cultural fears keep many people from the experience.

Experience edible insects and tell your story.

Insects have been consumed since the dawn of human existence. Our biology is very different and insect pathogens are specific to invertebrates and generally do not harm humans.

There are three areas of concern.

1.The risk of pathogens does exist to an extent; especially when insects are eaten raw. This is true with most foods and insects need to be treated with the same care as other food products. It’s always best to cook them.

2. People with shellfish allergies may be allergic to the chitin (the insect’s exoskeleton) since it is very similar to the chitin in crustaceans.

3. Pesticides and herbicides can be a problem with insects that are gathered in the wild and are not grown on a farm for human consumption.

Insects are the largest and most successful group of animals on the planet. It is estimated that they comprise 80% of all animals. Around one out of every four animals is a beetle. So, therefore, the nutritional value of insects varies considerably from insect to insect.

The flavor and texture of each insect vary as well. This is both a new and ancient culinary experience.

Although this is a recent trend in North America and Europe, around 80% of the world eats insects every day and have been since the dawn of human existence.

Our southern neighbor, Mexico, enjoys over 200 different edible insects. Thailand has over 20,000 insect farms and one of Cambodia’s top exports is edible insects. The Mopane Worm is considered a delicacy in Zimbabwe. The Witchety Grub in Australia. It’s obvious that here in the United States and Canada, we’re the ones missing out.

Maybe insects are what’s missing from our North American diets?! Insects are packed full of protein, beneficial fats, vitamins, minerals, and prebiotic fiber. They are animals we eat whole and are more easily digested than livestock muscle tissue.

One of the challenges and also benefits of raising insects is that they are what they eat in a significant way. Feed crickets carrots and they will be high in vitamin A. We can work with and control their diets to obtain an optimal product.


June 2nd 2017

While exploring the depths of a massive abyss off the coast of Australia over the weekend, a group of scientists came upon an odd-looking creature — a large, faceless fish.

The brownish white fish was unrecognizable, without eyes or anything that resembled gills. 

A group of 40 scientists from Museums Victoria and the Australian government's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), who are traveling on a research vessel for a month-long journey that began on May 15, caught the creature in the Jervis Bay Commonwealth Marine Reserve some 13,000 feet below the surface. The temperature of the water was barely above freezing.

"Everyone was amazed," one CSIRO scientist described in a blog post Tuesday. "We fishos thought we'd hit the jackpot, especially as we had no idea what is was."

They sent in tissue samples and emailed several images of the mystery fish to experts who work on abyssal fishes.

"We even conjured up possible new scientific names," an enthusiastic CSIRO scientist added.

Then eel expert John Pogonoski, who works for CSIRO's Australian National Fish Collection, examined the fish while onboard the vessel and shared some shocking news with the crew — the fish wasn't a new species after all.

It's actually a cusk eel with the scientific name Typhlonus nasus, which is derived from Greek, meaning "blind hake."

"So, it's not a new species, but it's still an incredibly exciting find, and we think ours is the largest one seen so far," CSIRO explained in the blog post.

The fish, which scientists dubbed the "Faceless Cusk," has not been spotted in the area for more than a century.

Crazy-looking fish from the deep sea


Dr. Tim O'Hara, the chief scientist and expedition leader for CSIRO, told The Guardian it was the first time the fish had been seen in waters off Australia since 1873, when one was dredged up by a British ship near Papua New Guinea.

According to CSIRO, the Faceless Cusk is known from the Arabian Sea, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Japan and Hawaii. Living at depths between 13,000 to 14,000 feet, it's a rare sight.

"This little fish looks amazing because the mouth is actually situated at the bottom of the animal so, when you look side-on, you can't see any eyes, you can't see any nose or gills or mouth," O'Hara told The Guardian. "It looks like two rear-ends on a fish, really."

The faceless fish went viral on Facebook and Twitter this week — with thousands of people sharing photos of the 17-inch-long sea creature.

"If he only knew how famous he'd become, imagine the look on his face! Oh...wait," CSIRO joked on Twitter Wednesday.

While the Faceless Cusk was a great catch, O'Hara said it just one of many unique creatures the team expects to find during their voyage.

"Scientists expect to find a range of animals, including new species, of fish, starfish, molluscs, crabs, sponges, marine worms and sea spiders," O'Hara said in statement online. "The data gathered on this trip will be crucial to understanding Australia's deep-sea habitats, their biodiversity and the ecological processes that sustain them."

April 29th 2017

Another strange creature, a geko that looks like a prehistoric dinosaur


Feb 14th 2017

Here are some things parasites will do to survive.

The hairworm makes infected crickets commit suicide in water so it can find a mate. Parasitic barnacles invade the bodies of crabs, sterilize them, and then trick them into caring for baby parasitic barnacles. Toxo makes rats so fearless that they run straight to cats, whose feces spread the parasite.

In other words, parasites sometimes possess not just the bodies of their hosts. They seem to possess their minds.

Malaria, which sickens more than 200 million people a year, seems to have some mind-altering powers over mosquitoes, too. The parasites that causes malaria, which belong to the genus Plasmodium, spread to humans through mosquito bites. A handful of studies have foundthat female mosquitoes infected with a certain stage of the parasite are more eager for blood. And conversely, humans infected with malaria seem to emanate signals that attract more mosquitoes.

A new study in Science actually illuminates how the parasite in human blood draws mosquitoes, manipulating the bugs into flying malaria-dispersal machines.

The discovery came by accident. Ingrid Faye, a molecular biologist at Stockholm University, was curious about a particular molecule made by malaria parasites called HMBPP. She wanted to drill into the details of how HMBPP affects mosquito immune systems, but her team ended up noticing some behavior too odd to ignore: The mosquitos—specifically, the species Anopheles gambiaethey were studying—would go crazy for human blood with HMBPP. “The difference it made was just astounding,” says Faye. When given a choice between normal human blood and that either laced with the HMBPP or infected with malaria parasites, almost all the mosquitoes went for the latter two.

The blue Dragon. It is a creature that lives in the sea and eats the poison stings of jellyfish,  it stores the poison in its body to ward off predators.

Bizarre Geko found

It has actually been named a Satanic Geko

photoshop picture shows added wings which are not real

Giraffe neck weevil


Life in the scorching hot Sahara Desert is no problem for an ant that has evolved an effective and stylish heat-repellant system, new research finds.

Saharan silver ants grow flashy body hairs that cause total internal reflection of light, which is a technique also used in manmade fiber optics. New findings about the cool system, published in the journal PLOS ONE, also report a scientific first.

This is “the first time that total internal reflection is shown to determine the color of an organism,” Serge Aron of the Free University of Brussels said in a press release. As the name of the ants suggest, that color is glittery silver.

Aron and his team used a Scanning electron microscope to investigate the ant’s hairs, watching what happens when incoming light hits them. They also compared normal hairy ants with some that had been shaved with a tiny scalpel blade to measure how light was reflected and how fast the ants heated up under simulated sunlight.

They found that the hairy ants were almost 10 times more reflective than the shaved ones, and were able to stay up to 35 degrees Fahrenheit cooler under simulated sunlight.

The high-powered microscope revealed that each of the ant’s hairs has a corrugated surface and a triangular cross-section. Like a prism, the hairs can then reflect light, such that the light rays entering each hair undergo total internal reflection, bouncing back off the bottom plane of the hair instead of transmitting through it.

The mirror effect gives the ant its bright silver sheen, likely provides some camouflage, aids in ant communications, and reduces heat absorption from sunlight. The latter prevents the ant from overheating.

While many Sahara Desert insects and animals come out at night to avoid daytime temperatures, the Saharan silver ant has no such fears.

Aron, lead author Quentin Willot and their colleagues wrote: “Workers come out from the nest during the hottest midday period, when temperatures exceed 50°C (122 degrees Fahrenheit), to scavenge corpses of heat-stricken animals.”

“By restricting foraging activity to the hottest period of the day,” the researchers continued, “the ants minimize the chances of encountering their most frequent predator — a lizard that ceases all activities when the temperature becomes unbearable.”

In addition to their silvery hairs, the ants are equipped with legs that are much longer than those of other ants. The long limbs keep their bodies away from the hot surface. They also allow the ants to run very fast, which helps them stay cool by Convection.

This strange creature lives in the sea in Asia and is just one of several bizarre species of worm with similar nasty habits, these are usually defensive but some have pointed ends with the venom

bizarre zombie snails

Worm eggs unknowingly ingested by the Amber Snail hatch in the snails digestive track. 

The larva then change into sporocysts, causing drastic mutations in the snail’s brain and physiology. Healthy snails seek darkness to hide from predators, but the infected Amber Snail moves itself into dangerous open space and light.  It is also helpless to retract its newly swollen, pulsating tentacles.

The end result is that feeding birds mistake the exposed tentacles for a caterpillar or grub, and rip them off the snail’s defenseless head. The flatworm then grows to maturity inside the bird, laying eggs that are released in droppings for new snails to consume.

The medical use of maggots to clean wounds.

And a very bizarre practice of using faecal excreta capsules to control the patients stomach bacteria

We shall cover the bizarre historical practice of Chinese foot binding.

maggot therapy

Maggots have been known for centuries to help heal wounds. Military surgeons noted that soldiers whose wounds became infested with maggots had better outcomes than those not infested. William Baer, while at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, may have been the first in the Northern Hemisphere to have intentionally applied larvae to wounds to induce wound healing. During the late 1920's, he identified specific species, raised them in the laboratory, and used their larvae to treat several children with osteomyelitis and soft tissue infections. He presented his findings at a surgical conference in 1929. Two years later, after treating 98 children, his findings were published posthumously.

MDT was successfully and routinely performed by thousands of physicians throughout the 1930’s, but soon it was supplanted by the new antibiotics and surgical techniques after World War II. Maggot therapy was occasionally used during the 1970's and 1980's, but only when antibiotics, surgery, and modern wound care failed to control the advancing wound.

The first modern clinical studies of maggot therapy were initiated in 1989, at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Long Beach, CA, and at the University of California, Irvine. Controlled clinical studies set out to compare maggot debridement therapy to the standard therapy being prescribed by wound care experts in the treatment of chronic pressure ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, post-traumatic wounds, etc. The results of those controlled comparative studies, and the many studies that followed, indicate that MDT is still useful today as a safe and effective treatment tool for some types of wounds. Those studies also demonstrate there is no reason to withhold MDT until all other modalities have been exhausted, nor to use it only as a "last resort." Indeed, while published accounts of "pre-amputation MDT" show a limb salvage rate of over 40%, the success of MDT when used earlier in the course of treatment (say, as a 2nd or 3rd or 4th line treatment) is even more dramatic    

the Poop treatment

The Poop treatment

Yes, pretty much. In the treatment (also called fecal microbiota therapy or fecal bacteriotherapy), a small amount of human waste is inserted into the patient's gut, or gastrointestinal system, via colonoscopy, enema, or nasogastric tube. Some doctors obtain the "medicine" from the patient's spouse, child, or friend; others find it preferable to work with anonymous donors. While most prepare a liquid solution, frozen feces have also been used successfully; so far no one has standardized the treatment protocol. 

Of course, it's not the fecal matter per se that's of interest, but the fact that it's swarming with microbes. (Donors are screened for the presence of any infectious diseases that could be transmitted through their feces.) The goal is to restore the natural balance of organisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Any number of factors and conditions can knock this balance out of whack, including many antibiotics that are used to fight infections. The drugs kill the pathogens but they also wipe out the beneficial bacteria that live in the gut; the fecal transplant allows these helpful microbes to recolonize the digestive organs.

Interest in fecal transplantation has grown as research into the human microbiome—the bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microbes that live in us and on us—has exploded. Our microbiomes harbor an estimated 100 trillion organisms—10 times the total number of cells in our bodies. Researchers are only beginning to understand the microbiome's diversity and its complex role in promoting health and warding off sickness.

The human gut is the microbe high-density zone. This gut biome appears to play a major role in many biological functions, among them strengthening our immune system, maintaining healthy cholesterol and weight profiles, and preventing allergies and auto-immune diseases. Just last month, researchers reported that people with diabetes have a distinct gut bacterial profile.  Some evidence suggests possible links with autism.

So does fecal transplantation work?

Yes, at least in the case of a nasty strain of bacteria called Clostridium difficile. This pathogen causes pernicious infections that lead to severe diarrhea, inflammation of the colon, and death. Twenty or thirty years ago, C. difficile infections occurred mostly in older hospitalized patients being treated with antibiotics. In the past decade, the infections have become much more common, virulent and antibiotic-resistant. These more aggressive bacterial strains can also attack young, healthy individuals.

"Finally, I referred her to a gastroenterologist for a fecal transplant from her mom. It was miraculous! She's fine now."

Many of the hundreds of thousands a year who suffer from C. difficile infection experience multiple relapses and undergo several bouts of heavy antibiotic treatment. The illness kills an estimated 14,000 people in the US annually, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Because of the severity of the infections, doctors in recent years have increasingly turned to the little-known fecal transplant alternative in apparently untreatable cases.

Dr. John Swartzberg, an infectious disease specialist at UC Berkeley's School of Public Health, recalls one patient, a Berkeley graduate student, who suffered six C. difficile relapses within a year, three of them requiring hospitalizations. "None of the standard treatments worked," he says. "Finally, I referred her to a gastroenterologist for a fecal transplant from her mom. It was miraculous! She's fine now."

In fact, studies of patients treated with fecal transplants for persistent C. difficile infections have reported rates of around 90 percent—a remarkable record. The treatment is believed to work by re-introducing a healthy gut biome that outcompetes and replaces the drug-resistant C. difficile organisms. To date, no one has reported findings from a randomized controlled trial, the epidemiologic gold standard and a necessary piece of evidence for formal approval from the US Food and Drug Administration, though a grant such a study was awarded to a researcher at the Women's Medicine Collaborative in Providence, Rhode Island back in August.

In fact, OpenBiome’s screening process is extremely strict: fewer than twenty per cent of recruits pass the blood and stool tests. Use of antibiotics in the previous six months is cause for rejection, as is travel to the developing world and the presence in a stool test of pathogens like B. hominis, a parasite that is found in up to ten per cent of healthy people. Approved donors are given blue Cool Whip-style containers and paid forty dollars a specimen. Size is important: an ample donation can provide up to ten treatments, and a monthly prize is awarded for “the most generous contribution.” In the past year, orders for OpenBiome’s stool have increased at a rate of about eighteen per cent a month. Its success has unnerved biotech companies that are developing stool-based enemas and capsules—or, as they’re known in the field, “crapsules”—for eventual sale on the commercial market.

Even if OpenBiome were to stop shipping stool to hospitals, it could presumably continue to operate as a resource for researchers. When I visited in October, there was a tray of shiny white capsules on Smith’s desk—“poop pills that we’ve been working on,” he explained. Doctors at Massachusetts General Hospital had just announced the results of a study showing that capsules were as effective as colonoscopes for treating C. difficile, and the field was abuzz with the news, since, as Smith pointed out, “everyone would rather swallow a pill.” He had hit on a way to improve on the doctors’ methods: lining capsules with cocoa butter, which is solid at room temperature, thus insuring that they won’t disintegrate prematurely—on the shelf or in someone’s mouth.

Chinese foot binding

One of the most bizarre stories from history are the details about the Chinese used to bind up the feet of infant females to make them more attractive. Many young girls used foot binding because it was a mark of beauty and were was one of the main avenues for women to find a husband in China or marry into money

Many women who underwent foot binding were left with lasting disabilities, and missionaries working in China in the last 1800s said the practice should be banned to promote equality between men and women.

Since they could not balance securely, older women who had bound feet were less able to rise from a sitting position and were more likely to fall and break their hips and other bones

Many of the foot bones would remain broken for years, but would start to heal as the girl grew older. However they were still prone to repeatedly re-breaking, especially during teenage years when the girl's feet were soft

Nick Rings

The 'giraffe women' of eastern Burma who wear brass rings around their necks as a sign of beauty 

  • The Kayan women wear coils around their necks to make them look longer
  • Their necks are not actually stretched - the weight of the brass pushes down the muscles around their collarbones and compresses their ribs
  • This makes their necks look longer than they actually are
  • It is not known why the women originally started wearing the neck rings
  • Now they do so as it is considered beautiful and to preserve the tradition
  • A full set of the neck rings can weigh as much as 10 kilos

With thanks to Emma Innes

These remarkable pictures show the bizarre ‘giraffe women’ of eastern Burma.

These Kayan women, from Kayah state, wear bizarre brass coils around their necks to give the impression that their necks are stretched.

Having a long neck is often seen as beautiful in Kayan culture.

The Kayan women of eastern Burma wear brass rings around their necks to make them appear longer

They can start wearing the rings from the age of five and tend to add more rings as they get older

While the neck rings make the women’s necks appear long, in reality, the weight of the coils pushes down the muscles around the collarbone and compresses the rib cage - meaning their necks appear longer than they are.

The women – who can start wearing the rings from the age of five - have a long piece of brass wound in a spiral around their necks.

The metal is wound manually by the women and, as brass is tough, this process can take many hours.

Most women gradually increase the number of coils on their rings to steadily increase the apparent length of their necks.

Despite the weight of the bizarre rings, the women wearing them experience little restriction to their movement.

The rings do not actually stretch the women's necks - the weight pushes down their collarbones and compresses their rib cages making their necks appear longer.

The women can remove the rings but they tend not to as it can be uncomfortable and the skin underneath tends to be dis-coloured

And, as the bizarre coiling and uncoiling process takes so long, the women rarely remove the rings – they usually only do so to replace them with a longer version.

The coils can be safely removed even though the muscles underneath are weakened.

However, many women prefer not to have them removed as their necks and collarbones are left bruised and dis-coloured underneath and they suffer discomfort when they are removed.

Additionally, when they have been wearing the rings for a long time, many of the women say they feel they have become an integral part of their bodies and they feel 'naked' without them.

The rings are made of long pieces of brass that are wrapped around the neck to form coils

Many of the women say that if they remove the rings they feel naked and vulnerable

It is not known why the women started wearing the rings but there are many theories

After a few days of not wearing the rings, the discomfort fades, but the dis-colouration tends to remain.

It is not clear exactly how the bizarre tradition of wearing the neck rings came about.

There are theories that women wore them to protect against tiger bites or that they were worn to make them look more like the dragons of local legends.

Other people believe they started wearing them to make themselves less attractive to other tribes so they were less likely to be taken into slavery.

Some people believe women originally wore the rings to protect themselves from tiger bites - other people think they were designed to make them unattractive so they were less likely to be taken into slavery

Now, most of the women wear the rings because they are seen as beautiful and to preserve the tradition

Some women wear the rings because they attract tourists and tourists bring vital revenue to the community

However, when asked, most of the women will now say they wear them to preserve their cultural identities.

Kayan women are usually now given a choice as to whether or not they want to wear the neck rings.

Most of those who still do, do so because they see them as beautiful or because they want to preserve the tradition.

It is also likely that some wear them because they attract tourists who bring vital revenue to the community.

The rings are wound around the women's necks and this can take several hours as the brass is very tough

Surprisingly, the rings do not significantly restrict the women's movement

A full set of the neck rings can weigh up to 10 kilos but few women wear that amount.

Female Genital Mutilation

FGM ---Breast ironing--- GOOGLE IT----unbelievable

I think the whole idea of hypnotism is bizarre, there is no doubt that it works but the idea that someone can control the mind of another person without any physical contact is very strange and yet it is an accepted medical treatment.

Then there's the altogether absurd strange and bizarre effect they get in quantum mechanics, where two particles can be entangled and then separated by thousands of miles and the odd thing is what you do to one particle effects. the other one remotely.

The underwater cemetery

Bizarre as it may sound this is not a new idea

You can be buried in a watery grave

Neutrinos  weird particles that can travel through the Earth

About four years ago, CERN made a claim that sent shockwaves through the scientific community. During the course of an experiment, CERN scientists apparently discovered that neutrinos -- tiny subatomic particles that travel near light speed -- could possibly accelerate faster than light. That, however, turned out to be an error, apparently due to some faulty testing equipment [Sad trombone]. Why are we talking about this now? Well, scientists have finally completed the experiment's original goal, which was to see if neutrinos could shift from one type to another (also known as the Oscillation Project with Emulation-tRacking Apparatus (OPERA) experiment). And, well, they can. Between 2008 and 2012, researchers were able to shoot a beam of "muon" type neutrinos through the Earth -- traveling a 730 kilometer distance from CERN in Geneva, Switzerland to the Gran Sasso lab in Italy -- and found that they had metamorphosed into "tau" type neutrinos on the other side. Just recently, the team uncovered the fifth such "tau" neutrino, thus concluding the experiment. While the study's result won't spoil Einstein's theory of relativity, the discovery is still an important step forward in the world of particle physics.

I have my own theory that these particles could be the cause of a lot of human cancers but of course it is impossible to prove this.

Ostrich riding

It's true, there are places in this world where they plant a jockey on the back of an ostrich and race them just like we do horses.

Did you know that there are spiders that catch fish

I will try and find out more details but I did see the photographs.

lip plate tribe

It may look bizarre to us, but in the Ethiopian Suri tribe, this enormous lip plate on their young ladies is actually a sign of beauty. DailyMail reports that when girls hit puberty in the tribe, they have their bottom two teeth removed in a bizarre ritual before a small hole is cut into their bottom lip.

A clay disc is then inserted into the hole, which is steadily increased, stretching the lip, much like flesh-tunnel piercings which have become popular with teenagers in the UK. The larger the lip plate the more cows the girl's father can demand in dowry when his daughter is married -- usually 40 for a small plate and 60 for a larger one.

In recent years though, some young women from the tribes are refusing to have their lips pierced, and removing their teeth can be a violent and sometimes traumatising task. Their men on the other hand take part in the considerably less-painful ritual of body painting. A basic paint is made from herbs and plants mixed with soil, before the tribesmen cover themselves with it, sculpting it into patterns.

There was also a bizarre custom in Egypt of enlarging the scull by binding.

Then there's a zombie spider, when attacked by a wasp is spider modifies its behaviour by building a stronger web so that the wasp cocoon doesn't destroy the web due to its weight.

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