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DROUGHT

Drought

Oct 31st 2017

I could report on this problem every day. It is a far-reaching worldwide problem that will be the cause of many problems in the future.

Feb 18th 2017

The shrunken carcasses of cows lie in scorched fields outside the city of Campina Grande in northeast Brazil, and hungry goats search for food on the cracked-earth floor of the Boqueirao reservoir that serves the desperate town.

After five years of drought, farmer Edivaldo Brito says he cannot remember when the Boqueirão reservoir was last full. But he has never seen it this empty.

"We've lost everything: bananas, beans, potatoes," Brito said. "We have to walk 3 kilometers just to wash clothes."

Brazil's arid northeast is weathering its worst drought on record and Campina Grande, which has 400,000 residents that depend on the reservoir, is running out of water.

After two years of rationing, residents complain that water from the reservoir is dirty, smelly and undrinkable. Those who can afford to do so buy bottled water to cook, wash their teeth with, and even to give their pets.

The reservoir is down to 4 percent of capacity and rainfall is expected to be sparse this year.

"If it does not fill up, the city's water system will collapse by mid-year," says Janiro Costa Rêgo, an expert on water resources and hydraulics professor at Campina Grande's federal university. "It would be a holocaust. You would have to evacuate the city."

Brazil's government says help is on the way.

REROUTING THE RIVER

After decades of promises and years of delays, the government says the rerouting of Brazil's longest river, the São Francisco, will soon relieve Campina Grande and desperate farmers in four parched northeastern states.

Water will be pumped over hills and through 400 kilometers of canals into dry river basins in Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco, and Paraíba, the small state of which Campina Grande is the second-biggest city.

Begun in 2005 by leftist president Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, the project has been delayed by political squabbles, corruption and cost-overruns of billions of dollars.

Brazil's ongoing recession, which economists calculate has shrunk the economy of the impoverished northeast by over four percent during each of the past two years, made things even worse.

Now, President Michel Temer is speeding up completion of the project, perhaps his best opportunity to boost support for his unpopular government in a region long-dominated by native-son Lula and his leftist Workers Party.

In early March, Temer plans to open a canal that will feed Campina Grande's reservoir at the town of Monteiro. The water will still take weeks to flow down the dry bed of the Paraíba river to Boqueirão.

With the quality of water in Campina Grande dropping by the day, it is a race against time.

Professor Costa Rêgo says the reservoir water will become untreatable by March and could harm residents who cannot afford bottled water.

Helder Barbalho, Temer's minister in charge of the project, says the government is confident the water will arrive on schedule.

"We have to deliver the water by April at all costs," he said.

CLIMATE CHANGE

Climate change has worsened the droughts in Brazil's northeast over the last 30 years, according to Eduardo Martins, head of Funceme, Ceará state's meteorological agency.

Rainfall has decreased and temperatures have risen, increasing demand for agricultural irrigation just as water supplies fell and evaporation accelerated.

Costa Rêgo blames lack of planning by Brazil's governments for persistent and repeated water crises, shocking for a country that boasts the biggest fresh water reserves on the planet.

The reservoir supplying São Paulo, Brazil's largest city and a metropolitan region of 20 million people, nearly dried up in 2015. The capital, Brasilia, resorted to rationing this year.

In Fortaleza, capital of Ceará and the northeast's second largest city, the vital Castanhão reservoir is down to 5 percent of its capacity.

While that city will also get water from the São Francisco project, it will not arrive until at least year-end because contractor Mendes Junior abandoned work after being implicated in a major corruption scandal.

"Water from the São Francisco river is vital," Ceará Governor Camilo Santana told Reuters. He said the reservoir can supply Ceará only until August.

After that, the state must use emergency wells and a mandatory 20 percent reduction in consumption to keep Fortaleza taps running until water arrives.

RATIONING

Ceará has had to cut back on irrigation, hurting flower and melon exporters, cattle ranchers and dairy farmers. They stand to flourish when the transfer comes through, but quenching the thirst of the cities will take priority.

In Campina Grande, a textile center, companies including industry leaders Coteminas and Alpargatas have curtailed expansion plans and drastically cut back consumption by recycling the water they use.

There, too, new water will first go towards solving the crisis in Campina Grande and surrounding towns. Only then will officials think about agriculture.

"First we have to satisfy the thirst of urban consumers. Only then can we think of producing wealth," said Joao Fernandes da Silva, the top water management official in Paraíba.

Rationing has particularly hurt poorer urban families. Many have no running water or water tanks and instead store water in plastic bottles.

For those who have waited decades for the São Francisco transfer, they will believe it only when they see the water flow.

Brito said he and his neighbors survive on the social programs that were the hallmark of Lula and his Workers Party administration. Though tainted by corruption allegations, Lula remains Brazil's most popular politician ahead of presidential elections next year.

"Without the Bolsa Familia program, we would be dying of hunger," said Brito, who believes shortages could persist even after the river transfer. "It's political season again, so they promise us water, just for our votes."

(Additional reporting by Ueslei Marcelino and Sergio Queiroz; Editing by Paulo Prada, Daniel Flynn and Bernadette Baum)

Nov15th 2016

Aquifers provide us freshwater that makes up for surface water lost from drought-depleted lakes, rivers, and reservoirs. We are drawing down these hidden, mostly nonrenewable groundwater supplies at unsustainable rates in the western United States and in several dry regions globally, threatening our future.

We are at our best when we can see a threat or challenge ahead. If flood waters are rising, an enemy is rushing at us, or a highway exit appears just ahead of a traffic jam, we see the looming crisis and respond.

We are not as adept when threats—or threatened resources—are invisible. Some of us have trouble realizing why invisible carbon emissions are changing the chemistry of the atmosphere and warming the planet. Because the surface of the sea is all we see, it's difficult to understand that we already have taken most of the large fish from the ocean, diminishing a major source of food. Neither of these crises are visible—they are largely out of sight, out of mind—so it's difficult to get excited and respond. Disappearing groundwater is another out-of-sight crisis.

Groundwater comes from aquifers—spongelike gravel and sand-filled underground reservoirs—and we see this water only when it flows from springs and wells. In the United States we rely on this hidden—and shrinking—water supply to meet half our needs, and as drought shrinks surface water in lakes, rivers, and reservoirs, we rely on groundwater from aquifers even more. Some shallow aquifers recharge from surface water, but deeper aquifers contain ancient water locked in the earth by changes in geology thousands or millions of years ago. These aquifers typically cannot recharge, and once this "fossil" water is gone, it is gone forever—potentially changing how and where we can live and grow food, among other things.

VIEW IMAGEA severe drought in California—now approaching four years long—has depleted snowpacks, rivers, and lakes, and groundwater use has soared to make up the shortfall. A new report from Stanford University says that nearly 60 percent of the state's water needs are now met by groundwater, up from 40 percent in years when normal amounts of rain and snow fall.

Relying on groundwater to make up for shrinking surface water supplies comes at a rising price, and this hidden water found in California's Central Valley aquifers is the focus of what amounts to a new gold rush. Well-drillers are working overtime, and as Brian Clark Howard reported here last week, farmers and homeowners short of water now must wait in line more than a year for their new wells.

In most years, aquifers recharge as rainfall and streamflow seep into unpaved ground. But during drought the water table—the depth at which water is found below the surface—drops as water is pumped from the ground faster than it can recharge. As Howard reported, Central Valley wells that used to strike water at 500 feet deep must now be drilled down 1,000 feet or more, at a cost of more than $300,000 for a single well. And as aquifers are depleted, the land also begins to subside, or sink.

Unlike those in other western states, Californians know little about their groundwater supply because well-drilling records are kept secret from public view, and there is no statewide policy limiting groundwater use. State legislators are contemplating a measure that would regulate and limit groundwater use, but even if it passes, compliance plans wouldn't be required until 2020, and full restrictions wouldn't kick in until 2040. California property owners now can pump as much water as they want from under the ground they own.

California's Central Valley isn't the only place in the U.S. where groundwater supplies are declining. Aquifers in the Colorado River Basin and the southern Great Plains also suffer severe depletion. Studies show that about half the groundwater depletion nationwide is from irrigation.Agriculture is the leading use of water in the U.S. and around the world, and globally irrigated farming takes more than 60 percent of the available freshwater.

The Colorado River Basin, which supplies water to 40 million people in seven states, is losing water at dramatic rates, and most of the losses are groundwater. A new satellite study from the University of California, Irvine and NASA indicates that the Colorado River Basin lost 65 cubic kilometers (15.6 cubic miles) of water from 2004 to 2013. That is twice the amount stored in Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the U.S., which can hold two years' worth of Colorado River runoff. As Jay Famiglietti, a NASA scientist and study co-author wrote here, groundwater made up 75 percent of the water lost in the basin.

Farther east, the Ogallala Aquifer under the High Plains is also shrinking because of too much demand. When the Dust Bowl overtook the Great Plains in the 1930s, the Ogallala had been discovered only recently, and for the most part it wasn't tapped then to help ease the drought. But large-scale center-pivot irrigation transformed crop production on the plains after World War II, allowing water-thirsty crops like corn and alfalfa for feeding livestock.

But severe drought threatens the southern plains again, and water is being unsustainably drawn from the southern Ogallala Aquifer. The northern Ogallala, found near the surface in Nebraska, is replenished by surface runoff from rivers originating in the Rockies. But farther south in Texas and New Mexico, water lies hundreds of feet below the surface, and does not recharge. Sandra Postel wrote here last month that the Ogallala Aquifer water level in the Texas Panhandle has dropped by up to 15 feet in the past decade, with more than three-quarters of that loss having come during the drought of the past five years. A recent Kansas State University study said that if farmers in Kansas keep irrigating at present rates, 69 percent of the Ogallala Aquifer will be gone in 50 years.

VThis coincides with a nationwide trend of groundwater declines. A 2013 study of 40 aquifers across the United States by the U.S. Geological Survey reports that the rate of groundwater depletion has increased dramatically since 2000, with almost 25 cubic kilometers (six cubic miles) of water per year being pumped from the ground. This compares to about 9.2 cubic kilometers (1.48 cubic miles) average withdrawal per year from 1900 to 2008.

Scarce groundwater supplies also are being used for energy. A recent study from CERES, an organization that advocates sustainable business practices, indicated that competition for water by hydraulic fracturing—a water-intensive drilling process for oil and gas known as "fracking"—already occurs in dry regions of the United States. The February reportsaid that more than half of all fracking wells in the U.S. are being drilled in regions experiencing drought, and that more than one-third of the wells are in regions suffering groundwater depletion.

Satellites have allowed us to more accurately understand groundwater supplies and depletion rates. Until these satellites, called GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), were launched by NASA, we couldn't see or measure this developing invisible crisis. GRACE has given us an improved picture of groundwater worldwide, revealing how supplies are shrinking in several regions vulnerable to drought: northern India, the North China Plain, and the Middle East among them.

As drought worsens groundwater depletion, water supplies for people and farming shrink, and this scarcity can set the table for social unrest. Saudi Arabia, which a few decades ago began pumping deep underground aquifers to grow wheat in the desert, has since abandoned the plan, in order to conserve what groundwater supplies remain, relying instead on imported wheat to feed the people of this arid land.

Managing and conserving groundwater supplies becomes an urgent challenge as drought depletes our surface supplies. Because groundwater is a common resource—available to anyone with well—drilling equipment-cooperation and collaboration will be crucial as we try to protect this shrinking line of defense against a future of water scarcity.

Dennis Dimick grew up on a hilly Oregon farm named Spring Hill, where groundwater from a spring provided his family's—and the farm's—water supply. He is National Geographic's Executive Editor for the Environment. You can follow him on Twitter, Instagram, and flickr.

Further Reading:

— California Drought Spurs Groundwater Drilling Boom in Central Valley
— 
Groundwater Depletion in Colorado River Basin Poses Big Risk to Water Security
— 
Drought Hastens Groundwater Depletion in the Texas Panhandle
— 
Storms Get Headlines, but Drought Is a Sneaky, Devastating Game-Changer
— 
How the West Was Lost
— 
Stanford University: Understanding California's Groundwater

April 22nd

India is reeling under a severe drought that has now affected over a quarter of the country’s 1.25 billion population, the government told the country’s Supreme Court Tuesday. A total of 256 districts across 10 states in the country — home to nearly 330 million people — have been affected by the drought, triggered by scanty monsoon rains and a heat wave that has pushed temperatures in some states above 113 degrees Fahrenheit.

India’s Additional Solicitor General P.S. Narasimha, who provided the data to the court, said that the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the western state of Maharashtra — cumulatively accounting for a total of over 130 million of the drought-affected population — have been affected the most. Recently, Maharashtra was forced to move 13 cricket matches out of the state after the High Court decried the “criminal wastage” of water that is needed to prepare the pitches.

“We agree that merely shifting of IPL [Indian Premier League] matches out of the state will not be a solution but this can be a beginning to address the drought situation in Maharashtra. Several people are dying because of water scarcity in the state. This court cannot ignore the plight of such people,” the Bombay High Court said in a statement.

According to India’s Central Water Commission, water availability in the country’s 91

reservoirs has now dipped to the lowest level in a decade. Drying rivers have also reignited old ownership conflicts, with north Indian states of Punjab and Haryana squabbling over waters of the Ravi and Beas rivers.

“My ministry has asked the Central Water Commission to prepare a report about water storage in each state. We will then send this report to all state governments and they would be urged to finish all their work on water-related projects in time,” India’s water resources minister, Uma Bharti, who recently came under criticism for saying it was “pointless” to plan for a drought in advance, said Sunday.

Water scarcity has also forced authorities in some states to impose mandatory water rationing. In the Latur district of Maharashtra, for instance, a prohibitory order on gatherings of more than five people near water storage tanks has been imposed. A train carrying half a million liters of water also has been sent to the drought-hit district.

20th april

India is reeling under a severe drought that has now affected over a quarter of the country’s 1.25 billion population, the government told the country’s Supreme Court Tuesday. A total of 256 districts across 10 states in the country — home to nearly 330 million people — have been affected by the drought, triggered by scanty monsoon rains and a heat wave that has pushed temperatures in some states above 113 degrees Fahrenheit.

India’s Additional Solicitor General P.S. Narasimha, who provided the data to the court, said that the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and the western state of Maharashtra — cumulatively accounting for a total of over 130 million of the drought-affected population — have been affected the most. Recently, Maharashtra was forced to move 13 cricket matches out of the state after the High Court decried the “criminal wastage” of water that is needed to prepare the pitches.

“We agree that merely shifting of IPL [Indian Premier League] matches out of the state will not be a solution but this can be a beginning to address the drought situation in Maharashtra. Several people are dying because of water scarcity in the state. This court cannot ignore the plight of such people,” the Bombay High Court said in a statement.

According to India’s Central Water Commission, water availability in the country’s 91

reservoirs has now dipped to the lowest level in a decade. Drying rivers have also reignited old ownership conflicts, with north Indian states of Punjab and Haryana squabbling over waters of the Ravi and Beas rivers.

“My ministry has asked the Central Water Commission to prepare a report about water storage in each state. We will then send this report to all state governments and they would be urged to finish all their work on water-related projects in time,” India’s water resources minister, Uma Bharti, who recently came under criticism for saying it was “pointless” to plan for a drought in advance, said Sunday.

Water scarcity has also forced authorities in some states to impose mandatory water rationing. In the Latur district of Maharashtra, for instance, a prohibitory order on gatherings of more than five people near water storage tanks has been imposed. A train carrying half a million liters of water also has been sent to the drought-hit district.

Drought

Somalia's bread basket has become a dust bowl as the life-giving waters of the mighty Shabelle river run dry amid intense drought in the war-torn country.

River-fed farmlands have become parched playgrounds for children who kick footballs beneath a cloudless sky, as one sign among many of the failed rains that the United Nations warns has put more than a million people at risk.

Elders in the Lower and Middle Shabelle regions, where most people rely on farming for survival, said it is the first time in decades they have seen such water shortages in the river.

"I have never dreamt of finding myself walking inside the river," said Adow Amin, a resident in Afgoye town, just outside the capital Mogadishu, an area famous for its banana production.

"Can you imagine there is no water? The whole area looks like another place, I used to cross this river with a boat," he said.

Land here should be producing maize, bananas, sesame and other fruits and vegetables, with the once broad waters of the river a lifeline for thousands of Somali families.

'This is a nightmare'

"All the villages in the regions rely on water from the river to survive, there are very few wells here and I don't think life is possible without the flow of water of the Shabelle River," said Mohamed Idle, an elder in Jowhar district, of the more than a 1,000 kilometre (800 mile) long river that begins in Ethiopia's highlands.

"This is a nightmare. I never thought of this river running dry, I can see the riverbed and children playing,"said Abdulahi Mursal, another resident. "People will soon start leaving here."

Floods and failed rains caused by the El Nino weather phenomenon have sparked a dramatic rise in the number of people going hungry in large parts of Africa, including in arid regions of the Horn of Africa.

Northern Somali areas, including self-declared independent Somaliland along the Gulf of Aden and semi-autonomous Puntland, are especially hard hit, with some 385,000 people in dire need of food aid, according to the UN, with that figure feared to quadruple without help.

"Severe drought exacerbated by El Nino conditions has hit parts of Puntland and Somaliland, affecting hundreds of thousands of people," the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) warned in latest report.

"A further 1.3 million people risk slipping into acute food insecurity if they do not receive assistance... or nearly 40 percent of the 4.6 million people living in Puntland and Somaliland."

'We are desperate'

The warning also comes as neighbouring Ethiopia -- the source of the Shabelle river -- struggles to combat its worst drought for 30 years, with at least 10.2 million people needing food aid.

Getting aid to the people in Somalia is an enormous challenge, especially in southern districts where the Al-Qaeda-linked Shebab remain powerful, fighting government troops and a 22,000-strong African Union force.

Last month the UN warned over 58,000 children will starve to death in Somalia without urgent support.

Severe drought and conflict in Somalia caused a famine in 2010-2012 that eventually killed a quarter of a million people. A similar number died during the previous 1992 famine.

El Nino is triggered by a warming in sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean. It can cause unusually heavy rains in some parts of the world and drought elsewhere.

"The impact of the drought in the north is already being felt in southern and central regions," the UN said recently.

"There are concerns on the rapid deterioration of the water situation in Belet Weyne in Middle Shabelle region due to the rapid reduction of water levels."

While the river is seasonal -- flooding during intense rains, then nearly drying up in the dry season -- residents say the levels are the lowest they have seen in recent memory.

"We are worried as there is serious water scarcity around villages, and many people are now trekking long distances every day to fetch water from wells," said Ibrahim Adam, a resident in Jowhar, saying people were desperate for expected rains due in April to arrive.

"We don't know what is happening, we are desperate," said Mohamed Nur, a farmer.

HANOI, Vietnam (AP) — As China opened one of its six dams on the upper Mekong River last month to help parched Southeast Asian countries down river cope with a record drought, it was hailed as benevolent water diplomacy.

But to critics of hydroelectric dams built on the Mekong over the concerns of governments and activists, it was the self-serving act of a country that, along with hydropower-exporting Laos, has helped worsen the region's water and environmental problems.

Much of Southeast Asia is suffering its worst drought in 20 or more years. Tens of millions of people in the region are affected by the low level of the Mekong, a rice-bowl-sustaining river system that flows into Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Fresh water is running short for hundreds of thousands of people in Vietnam and Cambodia, and reduced water for irrigation has hurt agriculture, particularly rice growing in Thailand, where land under cultivation is being cut significantly this year.

Vietnam estimates that 400,000 hectares (1,500 square miles) have been affected by saltwater intrusion, with some 166,000 hectares (640 square miles) rendered infertile. The affected land accounts for nearly 10 percent of the country's paddy cultivation area in the Mekong Delta, its main rice-growing region.

The water level in the Tonle Sap river as it passes the royal palace in Cambodia's capital, Phnom Penh, has fallen to a 50-year low.

Fingers are mainly pointed at the El Nino climate phenomenon, which produces drier and hotter-than-usual weather globally. But environmentalists and some officials say the situation is worsened by the 10 dams on the Mekong's mainstream built over the past two decades, at least partly because they reduce rainy-season flooding and trap sediments, making the downstream delta more vulnerable to seawater intrusion.

"I've lost all my investment. My family was left with nothing," said Thach Tai, a farmer from Ngoc Bien village in the southern Vietnamese province of Tra Vinh, as he surveyed his 2,000 square meters (half an acre) of dead, dry paddies.

"I don't know what to do. And there's nothing I can do to help with my rice paddies."

Tai said his 70-year-old father and other elderly people in the village of more than 180 families had never witnessed such drought and salination.

The current El Nino is one of the strongest climate events in the past 60 years "that is not over yet," said Kundhavi Kadiresan, assistant director-general at the U.N.'s Food and Agriculture Organization. It is the main factor in the drought, but "dams along the Mekong can and certainly do cause some problems," she said.

Vietnam says the saltwater intrusion into its southern Mekong Delta is unprecedented. In mid-March, it asked China to double the amount of water discharged from its Jinghong dam in Yunnan province. China agreed and the increased water flow is expected to continue until April 10.

Pham Tuan Phan, chief executive of the Mekong River Commission, a body set up to mediate the conflicting priorities of upstream and downstream Mekong countries, called the Chinese move a "gesture of goodwill."

China was embarking on unprecedented water diplomacy, declared Thailand's English-language Nation newspaper. China's Foreign Ministry said the government had decided to "overcome its own difficulties to offer emergency water flows."

The Chinese move was hailed as progress because it was the first time it had notified downstream countries of its plans for the Mekong's water level. But it also underlined the power China holds over a shared life-sustaining resource and the Mekong environment overall.

Ma Quang Trung, a department director at Vietnam's Agriculture Ministry, said discharges from the Jinghong dam might help reduce fresh water shortages for 575,000 Vietnamese, but are unlikely to ease the drought overall. Vietnam is so far downstream that only a small portion of the discharged water will reach it. He blames the drought on El Nino and Mekong dams.

Thailand, meanwhile, has added to regional tensions over the resource by deciding to pump large volumes of Mekong water to drought-afflicted provinces.

Many more dams are planned for the Mekong, including by China and landlocked Laos, which with Chinese support sees hydropower exports becoming the mainstay of its economy, one of Asia's least developed. As a member of the toothless river commission, Laos must consult Thailand, Vietnam and Cambodia but does not need their approval.

Laos went ahead with construction of the Xayaburi dam in 2012 over the concerns of its neighbors, who first wanted an in-depth study on what they feared would be profound effects on the Mekong, one of the world's largest inland fisheries. Existing research on dams worldwide shows they significantly diminish fishing grounds by creating barriers to breeding-cycle migrations and creating river conditions that destroy habitat and food sources.

Piaporn Deetes, a campaigner in Thailand for Rivers International, an advocacy group, scoffs at the idea that the Jinghong discharge was a selfless act by China to help its neighbors. She said China gets benefits such as electricity generation, and the temporarily higher water level makes for easier navigation on its section of the river.

The discharge also had disastrous consequences that were inevitable because millions who live along the Mekong and depend on it for their livelihoods were unaware water levels would suddenly rise.

River bank vegetable gardens were submerged and boats and fishing equipment swept away, said Deetes. Harvests of kaipen, a freshwater weed exported to Japan that is large source of income for river communities, were destroyed

We have been experiencing drought for many thousands of years but in these modern times they are much more serious and damaging to agriculture, and because there is a global trend for the earth to get warmer, this is known as global warming, because of this effect the weather is more extreme recently, storms and extreme dry spells being exaggerated everywhere,please refer to our page on climate-change to get the latest information and advice on what you can do to help.

You would think in these modern times we should be better able to cope, but nature is all powerful and in truth we have little control over it, we can reinforce our defenses, build stronger structures and protect ourselves in many ways, we could certainly do a lot more in respect of water storage, but generally all we can do is to wait until the weather improves.

We are continually improving our detecting devices by having many more data collection points and sophisticated systems such as satellites and automatic weather stations, this together with improved and increased computer capacity, enables us to forecast with much greater accuracy than we could in the past, we can observe, forecast and protect but there is little we can do to control.

Preparation is the key to most things you need the knowledge to prepare and then you need the knowledge of how you should act, you should read all the sections on this site that you think you might encounter we try to cover everything, but you know what your circumstances are, so not everything will apply to you.

One thing that may happen during a drought is that your normal water supply will be interrupted there is a section on this which will give you more information, you should have prepared your grab-bag and some of the items will be relative to this situation, if the dry period is extensive you should be prepared for civil unrest, refer to the dwelling preparation item.

These weather conditions are usually accompanied by sustained high temperatures, special preparations are needed for the more vulnerable amongst us to survive, please refer to the section giving you advice on how to cope in these circumstances.

Fortunately with modern communication systems these dangerous situations can be monitored easily and warnings issued by local government, civil defense, police, local radio and television.

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