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epilepsy

March 26th 2019 Purple Day

Everything you need to know about epilepsy

As one of the most common neurological disorders in the world, epilepsy affects approximately 50 million people across the globe.

Despite its prevalence, there may be a lot of information you don't know about the condition, such as possible causes of it and how it can be diagnosed.

On 26 March, people around the world are commemorating Purple Day to raise awareness of epilepsy and to dispel any misconceptions attached to it.

Here's everything you need to know about epilepsy, how many people it affects and the significance of Purple Day:

What is epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a neurological, life-long condition which affects the brain.

It's the fourth most common neurological disorder, the Epilepsy Foundation states, and affects people of all ages.

When an individual has epilepsy, they may be prone to experiencing frequent, unpredictable seizures.

These seizures happen when a sudden burst of electrical activity occurs in the brain, Epilepsy Action outlines.

While electrical activity is always happening in the brain, an unexpected burst can temporarily cause the brain to stop working as it should.

What are the diThere are several different kinds of epileptic seizures, Epilepsy Action outlines.

How many people does it affect?

Epilepsy affects one in 100 people in the UK, Epilepsy Action states.

Approximately 87 people in the country are diagnosed with the condition every day.

According to the Epilepsy Society, one in 20 people are likely to have a one-off epileptic seizure at some point in their lifetime.

However, this does not necessarily mean that they have epilepsy.

While epilepsy can develop at any age, it tends to be more common fferent types of epileptic seizures?

However, this does not necessarily mean that they have epilepsy.

While epilepsy can develop at any age, it tends to be more common in young children or older people, the Epilepsy Foundation outlines.

What causes epilepsy? While doctors are unable to pinpoint what causes epilepsy in more than half of cases, there are several possible causes of the neurological condition, Epilepsy Action explains.

This causes include experiencing a stroke, a previous brain condition such as meningitis, suffering a head injury and any problems that occurred during childbirth.

How is it diagnosed?

If you experience a seizure, your GP is likely to refer you to a specialist, the NHS explains.

This specialist is likely to be a neurologist, who can assess how your seizure was connected to your brain's activity.

Epilepsy isn't always diagnosed quickly, as other conditions such as migraines and panic attacks can have similar symptoms.

Furthermore, you probably won't be diagnosed with epilepsy unless you've experienced more than one seizure, as some people who experience one epileptic seizure may not necessarily have the long-term condition.

The tests carried out to determine whether or not you have epilepsy may include an electroencephalogram, during which small sensors are attached to your scalp, and a brain scan.

How is it treated?

People with epilepsy are prescribed specific medicines from their doctor, Epilepsy Action states.

While the medicines, which are sometimes called anti-epileptic drugs, doesn't cure the condition, it may reduce the number of seizures you experience.

If anti-epileptic drugs don't work, then doctors may suggest undergoing brain surgery or a type of surgery called vagus nerve stimulation.

When vagus nerve stimulation is conducted, mild pulses of electrical energy are sent to the brain through the vagus nerve, the Epilepsy Foundation states. This process prevents seizures.

What is Purple Day?

The aim of Purple Day, which falls on the same date every year, is to raise awareness of epilepsy on a global scale and to break down any taboos surrounding the topic.

The day was created by Cassidy Megan, a nine-year-old Canadian girl with epilepsy.

The first Purple Day event was held in 2008, with the help of the Epilepsy Association of Nova Scotia.

On the day, people are encouraged to wear purple clothing to show their support.

The colour purple is commonly associated with epilepsy because of the plant lavender's ability to relax the central nervous system.

Having been diagnosed with epilepsy at the age of seven, Megan wants to people with epilepsy know "that they aren't alone".

Purple Day is now celebrated around the world in more than 100 countries.

For information on what to do if you see someone having an epileptic seizure, click here.

Nov 1st 2018

Medical cannabis products now available on prescription in UK

Doctors will be able to prescribe cannabis products to patients in the UK from today.

Home Secretary Sajid Javid announced last month that new regulations would come into force on Thursday, relaxing the rules about the circumstances in which the products can be given to patients.

The move follows several high-profile cases, including that of young epilepsy sufferers Alfie Dingley and Billy Caldwell, whose conditions appeared to be helped by cannabis oil.

The medicines can only be prescribed by a specialist doctor – not a GP – on a case-by-case basis.

New NHS guidance says a decision to prescribe cannabis products should only be made where other treatment options have been exhausted.

Alfie’s mother Hannah Deacon welcomed the move when it was announced, saying: “I have personally seen how my son’s life has changed due to the medical cannabis he is now prescribed.

As a family we were facing his death. Now we are facing his life, full of joy and hope which is something I wish for each and every person in this country who could benefit from this medicine.”

Billy’s mother, Charlotte Caldwell, said she wept tears of joy at the move.

She said: “Only relatively recently did our Government and country really start to appreciate just how many wee children and people of all ages were affected by the difficulties associated with accessing medicinal cannabis.

“But once it became clear that it wasn’t just about what was perceived to be a small number of very sick children, and that medicinal cannabis could make a life-changing or life-saving difference to more than a million people, the overwhelming support of the public and the incredible speed of reaction of the Home Secretary has delivered an utterly amazing result.”

The decision to reschedule the products came following a specially commissioned review.

An initial review by chief medical adviser Dame Sally Davies concluded that there was evidence medicinal cannabis can have therapeutic benefits.

The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD), which carried out the second part of the review, then said doctors should be able to prescribe medicinal cannabis provided products meet safety standards.

The new law will not limit the types of conditions that can be considered for treatment and it means doctors will no longer need to seek approval from an expert panel in order for patients to access the medicines.

July 27th 2018

Cannabis-based medicines get green light as UK eases rules

Relaxation of laws means doctors will be able to prescribe medicinal cannabis

Doctors in the UK can prescribe cannabis-derived medicine after the government announced a relaxation of laws governing access to the substance.

Thousands of people with drug-resistant conditions will potentially be able to use cannabis-derived medicinal products for treatment after the home secretary, Sajid Javid, announced they should be placed in schedule 2 of the 2001 Misuse of Drugs Regulations, allowing clinicians to prescribe them by the autumn.

Cannabis has been classed as a schedule 1 drug, meaning it is thought to have no therapeutic value and cannot be lawfully possessed or prescribed. It may be used for the purposes of research, but a Home Office licence is required.

The move by the home secretary comes after the government’s official drug advisers and the chief medical officer for England, Sally Davies, separately concluded there was evidence of therapeutic benefit for some conditions.

The reviews came after a number of high-profile cases involving children being denied access to cannabis oil to control epileptic seizures. The cases included those of Billy Caldwell, 12, and Alfie Dingley, six, who have forms of intractable epilepsy, also known as refractory epilepsy, that appear to be eased by the use of cannabis oil.

Announcing the changes, Javid said: “Recent cases involving sick children made it clear to me that our position on cannabis-related medicinal products was not satisfactory.

“This will help patients with an exceptional clinical need, but is in no way a first step to the legalisation of cannabis for recreational use.”

When the review was announced, there were reports of divisions within the cabinet over the approach that should be taken – with the prime minister, Theresa May, disagreeing that a review should go ahead.

But Javid, who commissioned both reviews, told parliament that if experts identified significant medical and therapeutic benefits, he would be minded to follow their advice.

Announcing the review, Javid ruled out legalising the drug for recreational use after interventions by the former Conservative leader William Hague and police officials.

The Department of Health and Social Care and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency will now develop a clear definition of what constitutes a cannabis-derived medicinal product so they can be rescheduled and prescribed. Only products meeting this definition will be rescheduled.

Karen Gray, whose 38 Degrees petition for medicinal cannabis for her son Murray garnered more than 240,000 signatures, said: “There are so many children in the UK who will benefit from medicinal cannabis.

“Not to mention the adults that this medication helps also. I am delighted that the government are now acknowledging that cannabis has medicinal value. We still have a long way to go but this is certainly progress.”

 

May 6th 2018

A highly anticipated clinical trial has shown that treating patients with epilepsy with a compound derived from marijuana can significantly reduce and, in some cases, eliminate seizures in children and young adults.

In the study, children and young adults with a rare and debilitating form of epilepsy called Dravet syndrome who took doses of marijuana extract experienced half as many seizures per month as those who received a placebo.

And 5 percent of those treated with the marijuana extract, called cannabidiol, became seizure-free during the study period. [25 Odd Facts About Marijuana]

Currently, there aren't any medications that can completely control seizures in children with Dravet syndrome, according to the Epilepsy Foundation.

The study, published today (May 24) in the New England Journal of Medicine, is among the first to provide solid, clinical evidence to support a form of treatment that is becoming fairly widespread with the advent of medical marijuana, but which remains largely unregulated.

"I can't say enough about the importance of these kinds of medical trials. People have a sense that if 10 people say it works and it's a bad disease like cancer or epilepsy, then it's safe to use. That's just false," said Dr. Orrin Devinsky, the director of NYU Langone's Comprehensive Epilepsy Center and a co-lead author of the study. "Just because it's natural and just because there may be anecdotal support from people, doesn't mean it's effective and safe."

Cannabidiol

Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is one of dozens of compounds in marijuana called cannabinoids. But unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the main psychoactive chemical in marijuana, CBD does not get users "high."

The compound is typically administered in an oil form and is thought to work by interacting with receptors on nerve cells.

Interest in using the drug to treat epilepsy grew significantly in 2013 when an 8-year-old girl from Colorado with Dravet syndrome entered the public spotlight. The girl showed remarkable improvement after taking CBD administered by a Denver medical marijuana dispensary.

Since then, other anecdotal cases have shown promise and a December 2015 study (also led by Devinsky) suggested positive outcomes from the drug. The 2015 study, however, did not use a placebo. Results, therefore, were vulnerable to a bias since patients and doctors could associate any progress to the drug.

The new study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial — a study design that's considered the gold standard for clinical research. That means that neither the researchers nor the participants know if they have been given the drug being studied or a placebo.

The study included 120 children and young adults, ages 2 to 18, with Dravet syndrome. Half of the patients received a placebo, while the other half received 20 milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day of the CBD drug, Epidiolex. Epidiolex is a 99 percent cannabidiol preparation made by the U.K.-based company, GW Pharmaceuticals, which funded the study. [Healing Herb? Marijuana Could Treat These 5 Conditions]

At the end of the three-month trial, the researchers compared the frequency of patients' seizures to their seizure frequencies from a four-week period before the trial began. Those who received the drug had, on average, 12 seizures per month before the study began. After the study period, the frequency dropped to six seizures per month, on average.

Those patients who took CBD showed some side effects, including diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue and abnormal results on liver-function tests. But Devinsky said most of these reactions were mild and could be reduced with an adjustment in dose.

Beyond Dravet syndrome?

Dr. Helen Cross, also a co-lead author of the study, told Live Science that it was critical to measure the effects of a drug with carefully prepared levels of CBD.

"We know exactly what’s in every single batch," said Cross, a clinical neuroscientist at University College London's Institute of Child Health. "It's not like the hemp oils that you can buy from the internet, which are so variable in their content."

Indeed, in the U.S., CBD oil is legal (with varying limitations) in 44 states, but the substance is not regulated, and many patients and parents of children with elpilepsy are not waiting for clinical data and instead are trying these unregulated versions of the cannabis-derived drug. [3 More States Legalize Recreational Marijuana Use: How the Map Looks Now]

“We desperately need other studies like this in other forms of epilepsy and using other cannabis preparations. That should be a priority,” Devinsky told Live Science.

While Dravet syndrome is rare, affecting 1 in 40,000 children, epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological condition and affects more than 65 million people worldwide, according to the Epilepsy Foundation. Research from April 2017 showed CBD to be effective in treating another, relatively rare, but severe form of epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

"The big question now is whether this drug is also effective for a larger group of people with epilepsy who don't have these rare syndromes," Devinsky said.

In an editorial published in the same journal as the study, Dr. Sam Berkovic, a neurologist and the director of the Epilepsy Research Centre at the University of Melbourne, in Australia,emphasized the importance of the clinical trial ― and the need for more like it. Berkovic was not involved with the new research.

"Medical practice cannot be decided by anecdotes," Berkovic told Live Science in an email. "They are subject to many forms of bias."

 

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