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Oct 12th 2018
Mount Etna's Slide into the Sea Could Trigger a Catastrophic Collapse
Gravity is pulling Mount Etnatoward the sea, raising the possibility that the flank of the active volcano may someday suffer a catastrophic collapse.
There is no indication that such a collapse is imminent, but new research finds that the Italian volcano's southeastern flank is moving both above ground and under the sea. These movements mean that the risk of a slope collapse is higher than previously believed, researchers reported today (Oct. 10) in the journal Science Advances.
"We need to understand better how this transition works and what sort of triggers does it take for a collapse," study co-author Morelia Urlaub, a researcher in marine geodynamics at the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research in Kiel, Germany, told Live Science. [History's Most Destructive Volcanoes]
Mount Etna is Europe's most restless volcano. This mountain has experienced active periods since at least around 6000 B.C. and is currently in an eruptive cycle that has been ongoing since September 2013, according to the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program.
Researchers using satellite data and GPS measurements have also observed that Mount Etna's southeastern flank has been creeping seaward for at least 30 years. In March, scientists from The Open University in the United Kingdom reported that the slope moved an average of about a half-inch (14 millimeters) each year between 2001 and 2012 alone.
The debate, Urlaub said, has been whether this creep results from magma moving beneath and within the volcano or whether it results mostly from gravity. Mount Etna is constantly spewing material onto its slopes, she said, and gravity pulls that new material downward.
"That's common with these big volcanoes," Urlaub said. "They spread at the base."
Mount Etna also has its "feet in the water," Urlaub said. Its slopes continue below the Sicilian coast and into the Mediterranean. Until now, though, no one had measured how the flank was moving below sea level.
Using a network of seafloor sensors, Urlaub and her team measured how sound traveled from transponder to transponder every 90 minutes between April 2016 and July 2017. The time it took sound to travel reveals the distance between transponders, so the researchers could detect any changes in the seafloor over the study period.
They found that during an eight-day period in May 2017, a fault on the mountain's submarine flank shifted as much as 1.6 inches (4 centimeters). This was not an earthquake; the movement happened without a fault rupture or seismic waves, but rather as a gradual slip.
The area where the researchers measured the slip is far from the magma chambers at the center of Etna, Urlaub said. That means that the movement did not result from magma rising within the volcano's subterranean chambers; instead, it's the inexorable work of gravity, which pulls on the entire slope above and below the water.
That's bad news for Etna's risk to human life, Urlaub said.
"We know from other volcanoes in the geological record that these have collapsed catastrophically and caused really, really big, fast landslides," she said, "and if these landslides enter the sea, they can cause a tsunami."
The chance of that happening at Etna can't yet be quantified, Urlaub said. Scientific observations of the mountain date back only a few decades, she said, and the whole history of Etna spans 500,000 years. More monitoring is needed to detect whether there are any changes in how the slope is moving and to estimate its risk of collapse, she said.
"There is a hazard," Urlaub said. "We just have to keep an eye on Etna's flank and how it is moving."
Sept 29th 2018
384 killed as quake triggers tsunami in Indonesia
At least 384 people have been killed after a strong earthquake and tsunami struck Indonesia.
The national disaster agency released the official death toll and said all of the victims were killed in the tsunami-struck city of Palu, warning the toll was likely to rise.
Some 540 people were badly injured, it added.
Waves of up to two metres (6.6ft) high swept through the city of Palu on Sulawesi island after the magnitude 7.5 quake brought down several buildings and sent people fleeing from their homes.
Many of those killed were at a beach festival in Palu, the capital of Central Sulawesi province, which was strewn with debris from collapsed buildings and pooled seawater.
"When the (tsunami) threat arose yesterday, people were still doing their activities on the beach and did not immediately run and they became victims," disaster agency official Sutopo Purwo Nugroho said.
Palu, which has a population of more than 380,000, is built around a narrow bay which apparently magnified the force of the tsunami water as it raced into the tight inlet.
A magnitude 6.1 earthquake which earlier hit central Sulawesi also reportedly killed one person and injured 10 others, as well as damaging dozens of houses.
Authorities are struggling to co-ordinate the rescue effort because a power outage has cut communications around Palu and the nearby town of Donggala, which is closest to the epicentre of the quake.
Hospitals have been overwhelmed by the influx of injured, with many people being treated in open air, while other survivors helped to retrieve the remains of those who died.
Officials said some victims had been trapped in the rubble of collapsed buildings.
Mr Nugroho said: "Bodies of victims were found in several places, because they were hit by the rubble of collapsing buildings or swept by tsunami... but we are still collecting data."
Indonesian president Joko Widodo said the military was being called into the disaster-struck region to help search-and-rescue teams reach victims.
United Nations spokesman Stephane Dujarric said UN officials were in contact with Indonesian authorities and "stand ready to provide support as required".
The earthquake hit at a depth of 10km (6.2 miles) just before 6pm local time (12pm UK
time) on Friday, the US Geological Survey said.
A tsunami warning was issued but lifted within the hour.
Footage posted online showed waves of water bring down several buildings and swamp a large mosque in Palu.
"I just ran when I saw the waves hitting homes on the coastline," said Palu resident Rusidanto.
In the nearby city of Donggala, home to nearly 300,000 people, a large bridge with yellow arches that spanned a coastal river collapsed.
The 7.5 magnitude tremor later on was more powerful than a series of quakes that killed hundreds on the Indonesian island of Lombok in July and August.
Indonesia is prone to earthquakes because of its location on the Ring Of Fire, an arc of volcanoes and fault lines in the Pacific Basin.
In December 2004, a massive 9.1 magnitude earthquake off Sumatra in western Indonesia triggered a tsunami that killed 230,000 people in a dozen countries.
June 12th 2017
China, which is touchy about its "territorial sovereignty" over the energy-rich waters, thinks an efficient tsunami alert mechanism would be good for littoral states.
Reacting to India's decision to explore the possibility to set up such a system, the Chinese Foreign Ministry told IANS that it was "in the interest of all parties to strengthen tsunami early warning research".
"The relevant parties can discuss relevant cooperation issues under the existing cooperation mechanism."
Last month, an Indian government official said New Delhi planned to establish early warning tsunami system in the South China Sea.
Beijing in the past has warned New Delhi to stay away from the hotly-contested waters, over which Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam have overlapping claims.
Beijing is irked over India's ONGC Videsh Ltd's (OVL) presence off the coast of Vietnam where it is exploring hydrocarbon.
Last month, Song Zhongping, a military expert who formerly was in the People's Liberation Army, slammed India for its joint naval exercise with Singapore in the South China Sea, saying New Delhi had reneged on its promise of not provoking Beijing.
However, Beijing's welcoming response can help ease tensions between India and China which, analysts think, are likely to cool down after the "positive" meeting between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Xi Jinping on the sidelines of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation on Friday.
With China and other littoral states claiming the energy-rich waters, and the US asserting its right to freedom of navigation through it, the water body has become the world's most contested region.
* AN EARTHQUAKE WITH A PRELIMINARY MAGNITUDE OF 7.3 OCCURRED
NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN AT 2100 UTC ON MONDAY
NOVEMBER 21 2016.
* TSUNAMI WAVES HAVE BEEN OBSERVED.
* BASED ON ALL AVAILABLE DATA... HAZARDOUS TSUNAMI WAVES ARE
FORECAST FOR SOME COASTS.
Indonesia's National Disaster Mitigation Agency, or BNPB, has lifted the tsunami alert issued after a massive earthquake struck off the coast of Sumatra on Wednesday evening, reported The Jakarta Globe.
The Indonesian Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG) recorded a 7.8 magnitude earthquake at 7.49 p.m. in the Indian Ocean at a depth of 10 kilometers. The quake’s epicenter was 636 kilometers southwest off West Sumatra’s Mentawai Islands, which was devastated by a tsunami in 2010, killing 286 people with hundreds more missing.
Yesterday’s earthquake caused a panic among residents of Padang, West Sumatra, who were still traumatized by the 2009 earthquake which killed more than 1,000 people.
Residents living along Padang’s coast quickly scrambled out of their homes after the tsunami warning was first issued. The rest fled to higher ground in their cars and motorcycles, some carrying their precious belongings, causing traffic mayhem.
There have been no reports of damage.
President Joko Widodo was staying overnight at a hotel in Medan, North Sumatra, at the time of the earthquake, and is reported to be safe, palace officials said.
* AN EARTHQUAKE WITH A PRELIMINARY MAGNITUDE OF 8.4 OCCURRED
NEAR THE COAST OF VENEZUELA AT 1000 AM AST ON THURSDAY MARCH
* A TSUNAMI WAS GENERATED BY THIS EARTHQUAKE.
* BASED ON ALL AVAILABLE DATA... THERE IS THE THREAT OF
HAZARDOUS TSUNAMI WAVES FLOODING LOW-LYING COASTAL AREAS IN
PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS.
* THE EARLIEST ESTIMATED TIME THAT TSUNAMI WAVE ACTIVITY AND
FLOODING MAY BEGIN WITHIN THE PUERTO RICO AND VIRGIN ISLANDS
1121 AM AST ON THURSDAY MARCH 17 2016
* ACTIONS TO PROTECT HUMAN LIFE... SAFETY AND PROPERTY SHOULD
BE TAKEN IMMEDIATELY.
Tsunami is the name given to a series of tidal waves that are usually generated by a geological earthquake which may be hundreds of miles away, the waves may be very small and barely noticeable or they can be very large and very damaging, it is a very traumatic event that can wash away a large area in just a few minutes and most of all it is a heartbreaking event that can tear your family apart. this website brings you safety reminders below for you to be better equipped to enable you to survive and could prevent the very traumatic effects of a tsunami that would change your lives forever.
Tsunami trauma can be avoided with the very basic tips that this website advises, you should educate yourself and your family for the signs of tsunami as it will give you at least a short notice before it strikes. Knowing these safety tips is very important.
When there is an earthquake in your area, be alert and be prepared for there might be a big wave emergency.
Our geological technology today is equipped well enough to detect these events you will also get the police or any local authorities informing you of an alert, don’t ignore but heed the warnings.
Keep yourself updated with the geological news all the time.
We recommend you to have your first aid medicine bag (grab-bag) ready and your battery operated radio.
Have you felt a recent geological earthquake? If then you notice the sudden receding of the tides, note that it doesn’t happen with no reason. the waves are coming. get to a higher location immediately, a hill, a modern building or a multistory car park, get away from the sea.
Never go down to the beach to watch.
At night if you hear a loud roar that sounds like a train or aircraft it could be big waves approaching.
When the waves crash into low-lying land they can travel several kilometers inland, carrying masses of floating debris this causes damage on a colossal scale, when this mass of water and debris tries to return to the sea you may be carried along with it.
When you are washed away with the returning water and you find yourself in the ocean, find any floating objects that you can, hold on and wait for the rescuers.
When your body is covered with floating objects that are making you impossible to move, you can only pray and shout for help.
When you see the tsunami is coming and you are with children we recommend you to put a life jacket on the children and especially to the other members of your family who can’t swim.
we recommend everyone to plant and not cut the mangroves because it will protect you from tsunami just like the small village in Thailand way back on December 26, 2004 the whole village was saved because of the Mangroves.
Tsunami could make your family fall apart and when you are alone take courage, and to find your family go to any hospital or shelter and don’t lose hope.
It is recommended that you memorize the contact numbers as much as possible to prepare for an emergency like this.
When the waves subside we advise you to not go down to the water yet, climb as high as you can for a tsunami is not just a single wave but it’s a series of big waves.
It is expected that people will be traumatized and will be panicking to find their family we advise you stay calm, to listen, reassure them and help them to calm down.
When you are on a holiday we advise you to heed the tsunami evacuation signs in a foreign place for you to know where to go in case of emergency.
Drawbacks can serve as a brief warning. People who observe drawback (many survivors report an accompanying sucking sound), can survive only if they immediately run for high ground or seek the upper floors of nearby buildings. In 2004, a ten-year-old from England was in Thailand with her parents and sister, and having learned about tsunamis recently in school, told her family that a tsunami might be imminent. Her parents warned others minutes before the wave arrived, saving dozens of lives. She credited her geography teacher, Andrew Kearney.
Fortunately with modern radar systems the formation and path of these events can be monitored easily and warnings issued by local government, civil defense, police, local radio and television.Home Page - geological - tsunami